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Art Museum Images in Scholarly Publishing -- buy from     Rice University Press. image -->

Museums present many reasons for charging licensing fees for scholarly publication. In a pre-electronic age, servicing orders for photography was labor-intensive and time-consuming. Color transparencies were expensive to duplicate. Damaged or lost transparencies necessitated new photography. Descriptive information and credit lines had to be verified in multiple manual systems. Museums sought to recover these costs through licensing income.

Museums also used licensing to control use of images. They hoped to ensure that works in their collection would be reproduced with a high degree of color fidelity to the original, with accurate associated information, and in a manner that appropriately honored the artistic achievement of the underlying work. Their claim of copyright over the photographs of works in the public domain provided tight control of image use.

The advent of electronic information and digital images has created opportunities for more efficient management of information and images in museums. The web offers new ways to provide access to museum collections and deliver educational value to real and virtual visitors. The costs of implementing and maintaining carefully planned technology is repaid by the mission-enhancing benefits it can provide a museum.

Today, images can be delivered electronically, thereby eliminating reproduction and handling costs. Object information vetted by curators is increasingly centralized and readily available for multiple uses, including rights and licensing transactions. Museums no longer control access to images of works in their collections; images are captured by the cell phones and digital cameras of their visitors, scanned from books, and shared on Google. The right to claim copyright over photographs of two-dimensional works has been struck down in the United States’s Second Circuit court. Scholars and publishers are protesting that the fees museums charge to acquire images and the permission to reproduce them are causing a crisis in scholarly publishing.

In response to this changed landscape, a very few museums have taken the pioneering step of beginning to offer images for scholarly publication without charging asset or permission fees. At the time that the Victoria&Albert Museum announced its decision to do so, V&A Director Mark Jones explained, "We want to respond to the needs of the academic and education community by making collection images available with greater convenience and minimum cost. High charges have acted as a barrier to spreading knowledge, and we want to play a part in removing this.”

Perhaps the time is right for other museums to consider changing their licensing policies.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Art museum images. OpenStax CNX. Jun 17, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11532/1.1
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