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When will educational critics, school administrators, and writers, including this one, stop telling the same story about the requisite skills and dispositions required to prepare exemplary school leaders? These skills and dispositions developed by the American Association of School Administrators (AASA) in 1983 have changed very little in the 2003 Standards for Advanced Programs in Educational Leadership by the National Council for the Accreditation of Colleges of Education (NCATE) or the standards by Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium (ISLLC). Numerous descriptive research studies and observations of best practices of successful school leaders leave little doubt skills and dispositions must be included in leadership preparation and professional development. These basic skills for both building level and system administrators include visionary leadership, policy, law and governance, communication and community relations, organizational management and finance, curriculum design, instructional management and accountability, personnel management and assessment. The unsolved mysteries however, are to what extent do university professors stress the skills and dispositions and do the standards actually shape top school executives who can lead schools to exemplary status? This chapter will make a wide sweep of leadership research, exploring some of the mysteries and attempting to define the term “leadership.” affirm the difficulties in linking leadership preparation in universities and executive development programs in preparing individuals to become successful leaders, examine what seems to be missing in leadership research, who is in charge when leaders back down and how do leaders keep the organization on the proper edge for productivity when faced with inevitable political tensions between members of the community, school board and school administrators?
This module has been peer-reviewed, accepted, and sanctioned by the National Council of the Professors of Educational Administration (NCPEA) as a scholarly contribution to the knowledge base in educational administration.

This chapter will make a wide sweep of leadership research, exploring some of the mysteries and attemptingto define the term“leadership.”affirm the difficulties in linking leadership preparation in universities and executive developmentprograms in preparing individuals to become successful leaders, examine what seems to be missing in leadership research, who is incharge when leaders back down and how do leaders keep the organization on the proper edge for productivity when faced withinevitable political tensions between members of the community, school board and school administrators?

One More Time: What is Leadership?

Any discussion about leadership returns to the tired question: are leaders born or made? Next come the issuesabout leaders’temperament, intellect, persistence, and values and why some individual’s with great leadership potential never succeed and others with what appear to have limited leadership skillsaccomplish great things. The discussion can lead to personal charisma, gender, race, and physical attributes of strength andsize and why some individuals perform better under pressure. Some leaders adjust to situations better than others, some are bettertest takers, others are more reflective, some leaders have an inner sense of when and how to act under pressure and how to guide othersout of confusion. This inner sense of leadership was never more evident than during the horrible times at Auschwitz, the Nazi deathcamp. Elie Wiesel (2006) a prisoner at age 13 stood starving and shivering in the cold darkness when a Polish Jew supervisor of thebarracks smiled at him and the others. Wiesel recalls his words of hope. He told us“Comrades, you are now in the concentration camp Auschwitz. Don’t lose hope. We shall all see a day of liberation. Have faith in life. Hell does not last forever”(p.41). Even though this young Pole was assigned by the Nazis to keep order in thebarracks, he had compassion for their suffering and gave them hope for survival. Those were the first human words that 13 year oldElie Wiesel heard after being beaten and dehumanized for several days. In another classic display of leadership Winston Churchillexcelled. During the devastating bombings of London in World War II, Winston Churchill strengthened the resolve of his people andthe world with his daily messages of hope. He told the world (Rogers, 1986):

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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