<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

The Hardy-Weinberg Equation

  • p2 ( AA ) + 2pq ( Aa ) + q2 ( aa ) = 1

is incredibly useful because it describes mathematically the genetic product of a population in which all individuals are equally likely to survive and to produce surviving offspring. Specifically, it calculates the genotype frequencies that will be observed in a population that is not evolving. This information functions as a null hypothesis or standard against which we can judge if a population is evolving.

Summarizing the concepts on which hardy-weinberg is based

To understand how Hardy-Weinberg enables this, let’s review what we have learned:

  • When agents of evolution favor the survival and/or reproduction of some individuals (and their alleles) over others, the population’s allele frequencies change over time and the population is said to evolve.
  • When all individuals are equally likely to survive and to produce offspring that survive, allele frequencies do not change from one generation to the next because alleles end up in fertilization events, and thus the offspring generation, in proportion to their relative commonness (frequency) in the parental generation.
  • When alleles end up in fertilization events (and the offspring generation) in proportion to their relative commonness in the parental generation, genotype frequencies of the offspring generation can be determined from the allele frequencies of the parental generation using simple rules for calculating the probability of an event composed to two independent events.
  • Specifically, these rules say that, if we let p equal the frequency of the A allele and q the frequency of the a allele in the parental generation, and thus p equals the probability of picking an A allele and q an a allele from the parental generation, the:
  • frequency of the AA genotype in the offspring generation is equal to the probability of picking two A alleles from the parent generation or p x p = p2
  • frequency of the aa genotype in the offspring generation is equal to the probability of picking two a alleles from the parent generation or q x q = q2
  • frequency of the Aa genotype in the offspring generation is equal to two times the probability of picking an A and a allele from the parent generation or 2 x (p x q) = 2pq
  • This relationship, which is often written as p2 ( AA ) + 2pq ( Aa ) + q2 ( aa ) = 1, is known as the Hardy-Weinberg equation. It tells us what genotype frequencies (p2, 2pq, q2) we will see in a population that is not evolving based on parental allele frequencies, p and q.

Finally, please recall that the Hardy-Weinberg equation only applies to a locus for which there are two alleles in a population. And that, although some individuals in the population will die or fail to reproduce, population allele frequencies will be maintained because these losses will remove alleles in proportion to their commonness in the population.

So what is the power of these concepts?

Notice that these principles apply to the production of a single generation. Thus, if an offspring generation is the product of a parental generation that was not subject to an agent of evolution, then the offspring generation must have the following two properties.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation. OpenStax CNX. Oct 22, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10472/1.1
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Understanding the hardy-weinberg equation' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask