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Typical output of agcgrad.m is shown in [link] . The gain parameter a adjusts automatically to make the overall power of the output s roughly equal to the specified parameter ds . Using the default values above, where the average power of r is approximately 1, we find that a converges to about 0 . 38 since 0 . 38 2 0 . 15 = s 2 .

The objective J L S ( a ) can be implemented similarly by replacing the avec calculation inside the for loop with

avec=[(s(k)^2-ds)*(s(k)^2)/a(k),avec(1:end-1)];

In this case, with the default values, a converges to about 0 . 22 , which is the value that minimizes the least square objective J L S ( a ) . Thus, the answer which minimizes J L S ( a ) is different from the answer which minimizes J N ( a ) ! More on this later.

As it is easy to see when playing with the parameters in agcgrad.m , the size of the averaging parameter lenavg is relatively unimportant. Even with lenavg=1 , the algorithms converge and perform approximately the same! This is because the algorithm updatesare themselves in the form of a lowpass filter. Removing the averaging from the update gives the simpler formfor J N ( a )

a(k+1)=a(k)-mu*sign(a(k))*(s(k)^2-ds);

or, for J L S ( a ) ,

a(k+1)=a(k)-mu*(s(k)^2-ds)*(s(k)^2)/a(k);

Try them!

Perhaps the best way to formally describe how the algorithms work is to plot the performance functions.But it is not possible to directly plot J L S ( a ) or J N ( a ) , since they depend on the data sequence s [ k ] . What is possible (and often leads to useful insights)is to plot the performance function averaged over a number of data points (also called the error surface ). As long as the stepsize is small enough and the average is long enough,the mean behavior of the algorithm will be dictated by the shape of the errorsurface in the same way that the objective function of the exact steepest descent algorithm (for instance, the objectives [link] and [link] ) dictate the evolution of the algorithms [link] and  [link] .

An automatic gain control adjusts the parameter a (in the top panel) automatically to achieve the desired output power.
An automatic gain control adjusts the parameter a (in the top panel) automatically to achieve the desired output power.

The following code agcerrorsurf.m shows how to calculate the error surface for J N ( a ) : The variable n specifies the number of terms to average over, and tot sums up the behavior of the algorithm for all n updates at each possible parameter value a . The average of these ( tot/n ) is a close (numerical) approximation to J N ( a ) of [link] . Plotting over all a gives the error surface.

n=10000;                       % number of steps in simulation r=randn(n,1);                  % generate random inputsds=0.15;                       % desired power of output range=[-0.7:0.02:0.7];         % range specifies range of values of a Jagc=zeros(size(range));j=0; for a=range                    % for each value a  j=j+1;   tot=0;  for i=1:n     tot=tot+abs(a)*((1/3)*a^2*r(i)^2-ds);  % total cost over all possibilities  end   Jagc(j)=tot/n;               % take average value, and saveend
agcerrorsurf.m draw the error surface for the AGC (download file)

Similarly, the error surface for J L S ( a ) can be plotted using

tot=tot+0.25*(a^2*r(i)^2-ds)^2;  % error surface for JLS

The output of agcerrorsurf.m for both objective functions is shown in [link] . Observe that zero (which is acritical point of the error surface) is a local maximum in both cases.The final converged answers ( a 0 . 38 for J N ( a ) and a 0 . 22 for J L S ( a ) ) occur at minima. Were the algorithm to be initializedimproperly to a negative value, then it would converge to the negative of these values.As with the algorithms in [link] , examination of the error surfaces shows why the algorithms converge as they do. The parameter a descends the error surface until it can go no further.

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Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
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