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Consider performing an iterative maximization of

J ( x ) = 8 - 6 | x | + 6 cos ( 6 x )

via [link] with the sign on the update reversed (so that the algorithm will maximize ratherthan minimize). Suppose the initialization is x [ 0 ] = 0 . 7 .

  1. Assuming the use of a suitably small stepsize μ , determine the convergent value of x .
  2. Is the convergent value of x in part (a) the global maximum of J ( x ) ? Justify your answer by sketching the error surface.

Suppose that a unimodal single-variable performance function has only one point with zeroderivative and that all points have a positive second derivative. TRUE or FALSE: A gradient descent methodwill converge to the global minimum from any initialization.

Consider the modulated signal

r ( t ) = w ( t ) cos ( 2 π f c t + Φ )

where the absolute bandwidth of the baseband message waveform w ( t ) is less than f c / 2 . The signals x and y are generated via

x ( t ) = LPF { r ( t ) cos ( 2 π f c t + θ ) } y ( t ) = LPF { r ( t ) sin ( 2 π f c t + θ ) }

where the LPF cutoff frequency is f c / 2 .

  1. Determine x ( t ) in terms of w ( t ) , f c , Φ , and θ .
  2. Show that
    θ { 1 2 x 2 ( t ) } = - x ( t ) y ( t )
    using the fact that derivatives and filters commute as in [link] .
  3. Determine the values of θ maximizing x 2 ( t ) .

Consider the function

J ( x ) = 1 - | x - 2 | 2 .
  1. Sketch J ( x ) for - 5 x 5 .
  2. Analytically determine all local minima and maxima of J ( x ) for - 5 x 5 . Hint: d | f ( b ) | d b = sign ( f ( b ) ) d f ( b ) d b where sign ( a ) is defined in [link] .
  3. Is J ( x ) unimodal as a function of x ? Explain your answer.
  4. Develop an iterative gradient descent algorithm for updating x to minimize J .
  5. For an initial estimate of x = 1 . 2 , what is the convergent value of x determined by an iterative gradient descent algorithm with a satisfactorily small stepsize.
  6. Compute the direction (either increasing x or decreasing x ) of the update from (d) for x = 1 . 2 .
  7. Does the direction determined in part (f) point from x = 1 . 2 toward the convergent value of part (e)? Should it (for a correct answer to (e))? Explain your answer.

Automatic gain control

Any receiver is designed to handle signals of a certain average magnitude most effectively. The goal of an AGC is toamplify weak signals and to attenuate strong signals so that they remain (as much as possible) within the normaloperating range of the receiver. Typically, the rate at which the gain varies is slow compared with the data rate, though itmay be fast by human standards.

The power in a received signal depends on many things: the strength of the broadcast, the distance from the transmitter to the receiver, thedirection in which the antenna is pointed, and whether there are any geographic features such as mountains (or tall buildings) that block,reflect, or absorb the signal. While more power is generally better from the point of view of trying to decipher the transmitted message,there are always limits to the power handling capabilities of the receiver. Hence if the received signal is too large (on average), itmust be attenuated. Similarly, if the received signal is weak (on average), then it must be amplified.

[link] shows the two extremes that the AGC is designed to avoid. In part (a), the signal is much larger than the levels of thesampling device (indicated by the horizontal lines). The gain must be made smaller. In part (b), the signal ismuch too small to be captured effectively, and the gain must increased.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Software receiver design. OpenStax CNX. Aug 13, 2013 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11510/1.3
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