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As observed by the superintendent, Allen, we should not assume that our school leaders possess the necessary knowledge and skills to foster and maintain the trusting relationships that result in higher student achievement. Nor should we assume that teachers, support staff, and parents are aware of how to participate in basic human interactions in ways that foster trusting relationships. The consensus practices described in this study offer promising and accessible tools for those intricately involved in schools in developing strong learning communities and, in fact, communities of leaders. It is within these learning communities that higher student achievement will be realized (DuFour&Eaker, 1998). The specific strategies described here are available to school leaders through training from consultants and abundant print resources. While it is true that many school leaders already possess and practice the skills necessary to build trusting relationships in their schools, training and attention to these strategies can hone those skills in ways that will result in even greater effectiveness. For those lacking these skills, consensus processes provide the structure and focus needed to develop new skills and focus attention on effective group processes. If the acquisition of these consensus strategies has the effect on other school leaders as it did on Carolyn, the Lincoln School principal, this approach to group processing has the potential of transforming how our schools are operated. Commenting on her experience with the consensus approach, Carolyn stated, “It profoundly affected the way I worked with people in this school.” It is her staff members’ observations of the relational effects of the consensus strategies that appear in this study.

The encouraging results of this research aside, additional inquiry into the use and effect of consensus practices in schools is warranted. A mixed methods study with school groups – a school, school committee, or organization - can assist in establishing the efficacy of consensus strategies in developing relational trust as well as further the understanding of how these practices contribute to this phenomenon. Future research should contribute to the toolbox of skills and strategies necessary for effective group and school leadership. In doing so, the fundamental purpose of this work in improving student achievement can be met.

References

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Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman&Company.

Barth, R. S. (2001). Learning by heart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Block, P. (2008). Community: The structure of belonging. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Bryk, A.S.,&Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Council of Chief State School Officers (1996). Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium: Standards for school leaders. Washington, D.C.

Council of Chief State School Officers (2008). Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC. 2008. Washington, D.C.

Dressler, L. (2006). Consensus through conversation: How to achieve high-commitment decisions. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

DuFour, R.&Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

Eichler, M. (2007). Consensus organizing: Building communities of mutual self-interest. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Eller, J. (2004). Effective group facilitation in education: How to energize meetings and manage difficult groups. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Fuller, E.J., (1996). Conflict or congruence? Faculty, parent, and student trust in the principal. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Glasser, B.G., Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine

Hoy, W.K.,&Tschannen-Moran, M. (2003). The conceptualization and measurement of faculty trust in schools. In W.K. Hoy&C. Miskel (Eds.), Studies in leading and organizing schools (pp.181-207). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Kochanek, J.R. (2005). Building trust for better schools: Research-based practices. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Louis, K.S. (2008). Creating and sustaining professional communities. In A. M. Blankstein, P. D. Houston&R. W. Cole (Eds.), Sustaining professional learning communities. (pp. 41-57). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Schuman, S. (Ed). (2005). The IAF handbook of group facilitation: Best practices from the leading organization in facilitation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sebring, P. B.,&Bryk, A. S. (2000). School Leadership and the Bottom Line in Chicago. Phi Delta Kappan. 81(6), 440-443.

Susskind, L., McKearnan, S., Thomas-Larmer, J., (1991). The consensus building handbook: A comprehensive guide to reaching agreement. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Tschannen-Moran, M., (2004). Trust matters: Leadership for successful schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tschannen-Moran, M.,&Hoy, W.K. (2000). A multidisciplinary analysis of the nature, meaning, and measurement of trust. Review of Educational Research, 70(4), 547-593.

Tye, B. B., (2000). Hard truths: Uncovering the deep structures of schooling. New York: Teachers College.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 1; february 2009. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10630/1.9
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