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As observed by the superintendent, Allen, we should not assume that our school leaders possess the necessary knowledge and skills to foster and maintain the trusting relationships that result in higher student achievement. Nor should we assume that teachers, support staff, and parents are aware of how to participate in basic human interactions in ways that foster trusting relationships. The consensus practices described in this study offer promising and accessible tools for those intricately involved in schools in developing strong learning communities and, in fact, communities of leaders. It is within these learning communities that higher student achievement will be realized (DuFour&Eaker, 1998). The specific strategies described here are available to school leaders through training from consultants and abundant print resources. While it is true that many school leaders already possess and practice the skills necessary to build trusting relationships in their schools, training and attention to these strategies can hone those skills in ways that will result in even greater effectiveness. For those lacking these skills, consensus processes provide the structure and focus needed to develop new skills and focus attention on effective group processes. If the acquisition of these consensus strategies has the effect on other school leaders as it did on Carolyn, the Lincoln School principal, this approach to group processing has the potential of transforming how our schools are operated. Commenting on her experience with the consensus approach, Carolyn stated, “It profoundly affected the way I worked with people in this school.” It is her staff members’ observations of the relational effects of the consensus strategies that appear in this study.

The encouraging results of this research aside, additional inquiry into the use and effect of consensus practices in schools is warranted. A mixed methods study with school groups – a school, school committee, or organization - can assist in establishing the efficacy of consensus strategies in developing relational trust as well as further the understanding of how these practices contribute to this phenomenon. Future research should contribute to the toolbox of skills and strategies necessary for effective group and school leadership. In doing so, the fundamental purpose of this work in improving student achievement can be met.

References

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Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman&Company.

Barth, R. S. (2001). Learning by heart. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Block, P. (2008). Community: The structure of belonging. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

Bryk, A.S.,&Schneider, B. (2002). Trust in schools: A core resource for improvement. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Council of Chief State School Officers (1996). Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium: Standards for school leaders. Washington, D.C.

Council of Chief State School Officers (2008). Educational leadership policy standards: ISLLC. 2008. Washington, D.C.

Dressler, L. (2006). Consensus through conversation: How to achieve high-commitment decisions. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

DuFour, R.&Eaker, R. (1998). Professional learning communities at work: Best practices for enhancing student achievement. Bloomington, IN: National Educational Service.

Eichler, M. (2007). Consensus organizing: Building communities of mutual self-interest. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Eller, J. (2004). Effective group facilitation in education: How to energize meetings and manage difficult groups. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Fuller, E.J., (1996). Conflict or congruence? Faculty, parent, and student trust in the principal. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York.

Glasser, B.G., Strauss, A.L. (1967). The Discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Chicago: Aldine

Hoy, W.K.,&Tschannen-Moran, M. (2003). The conceptualization and measurement of faculty trust in schools. In W.K. Hoy&C. Miskel (Eds.), Studies in leading and organizing schools (pp.181-207). Greenwich, CT: Information Age.

Kochanek, J.R. (2005). Building trust for better schools: Research-based practices. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Louis, K.S. (2008). Creating and sustaining professional communities. In A. M. Blankstein, P. D. Houston&R. W. Cole (Eds.), Sustaining professional learning communities. (pp. 41-57). Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.

Schuman, S. (Ed). (2005). The IAF handbook of group facilitation: Best practices from the leading organization in facilitation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Sebring, P. B.,&Bryk, A. S. (2000). School Leadership and the Bottom Line in Chicago. Phi Delta Kappan. 81(6), 440-443.

Susskind, L., McKearnan, S., Thomas-Larmer, J., (1991). The consensus building handbook: A comprehensive guide to reaching agreement. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Tschannen-Moran, M., (2004). Trust matters: Leadership for successful schools. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Tschannen-Moran, M.,&Hoy, W.K. (2000). A multidisciplinary analysis of the nature, meaning, and measurement of trust. Review of Educational Research, 70(4), 547-593.

Tye, B. B., (2000). Hard truths: Uncovering the deep structures of schooling. New York: Teachers College.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
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if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
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biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
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research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 1; february 2009. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10630/1.9
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