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In Building Trust for Better Schools, Kochanek’s (2005) focus is on leadership practices in elementary schools that build trust. This guide to principals suggests a developmental approach of communicating a vision, reshaping the faculty, fostering low-risk exchanges through small group interactions, using interactions to ease vulnerabilities, and then creating opportunities for high-risk interactions. Through these repeated exchanges, staff members build confidence in themselves and others resulting in greater trust in their relationships. Kochanek also explores which strategies are most effective in building trust. The steps offered for principals to build trust in schools are 1) put others at ease, 2) remove barriers to trust, and 3) provide opportunities for people to interact.

Kochanek asserts that the material offered, “presents a series of mechanisms that are useful in developing trust in a school community” (p.86). What are not found in the literature are the specific group process strategies that are readily accessible to school principals and other school leaders. “Even in the business literature, there are few serious comparative studies about how to build trust…” (Louis, 2008, p. 50). The question of what human interaction methodologies can be employed when the adults in a school experience low levels of trust characterized by a lack of collaboration or conflict is not answered.

Consensus principles and methods

Consensus is defined by the dictionary as “general agreement or opinion” (Abate, 1998, p. 121). In consensus literature, this general definition is expanded to include the practice of consensus building and is described as “a cooperative process in which all group members develop and agree to support a decision that is in the best interest of the whole” (Dressler, 2006, p. 4). Beliefs that guide consensus and other group processes are as varied as the practitioners who offer field or handbooks on the various approaches to consensus building (Dressler, 2006; Eichler, 2007; Susskind, McKearnan, Thomas-Learner, 1991). Dressler notes that consensus is characterized by a cooperative search for solutions where disagreement is accepted as a positive force, every voice matters, and decisions are reached in the interest of the group. The core values of the International Association of Facilitators (IAF) contain inclusiveness, global scope, participation, celebration, innovative form, and social responsibility (Schuman, 2005).

These guiding principles of the consensus process are implemented using a wide-range of practices, methods, and techniques. Schuman (2005) suggests providing activities that share all relevant information, allow for individuals to explain their reasoning and intent, focus on interests rather than positions, combine advocacy and inquiry, allow for discussing undiscussable issues, ensure that every person is heard, and promote authentic listening. To guard against participants remaining silent and not being heard, Dressler suggests using a “round robin” approach that circles the room so everyone speaks (2006). While there is surprisingly no discussion by Dressler (2006) of the physical set up for a group consensus activity except by reference to the “round robin” approach, it is perhaps no accident that the front cover photograph of his book Consensus through Conversation features a bird’s eye view of twelve participants sitting in a circle. Management consultant and author, Peter Block, provides clear direction for the physical set up group conversations by stating that, “Community is built when we sit in circles” (p. 151).

Questions & Answers

what is math number
Tric Reply
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
An investment account was opened with an initial deposit of $9,600 and earns 7.4% interest, compounded continuously. How much will the account be worth after 15 years?
Kala Reply
lim x to infinity e^1-e^-1/log(1+x)
given eccentricity and a point find the equiation
Moses Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
Alexandra Reply
12, 17, 22.... 25th term
College algebra is really hard?
Shirleen Reply
Absolutely, for me. My problems with math started in First grade...involving a nun Sister Anastasia, bad vision, talking & getting expelled from Catholic school. When it comes to math I just can't focus and all I can hear is our family silverware banging and clanging on the pink Formica table.
I'm 13 and I understand it great
I am 1 year old but I can do it! 1+1=2 proof very hard for me though.
Not really they are just easy concepts which can be understood if you have great basics. I am 14 I understood them easily.
find the 15th term of the geometric sequince whose first is 18 and last term of 387
Jerwin Reply
I know this work
The given of f(x=x-2. then what is the value of this f(3) 5f(x+1)
virgelyn Reply
hmm well what is the answer
If f(x) = x-2 then, f(3) when 5f(x+1) 5((3-2)+1) 5(1+1) 5(2) 10
how do they get the third part x = (32)5/4
kinnecy Reply
make 5/4 into a mixed number, make that a decimal, and then multiply 32 by the decimal 5/4 turns out to be
can someone help me with some logarithmic and exponential equations.
Jeffrey Reply
sure. what is your question?
okay, so you have 6 raised to the power of 2. what is that part of your answer
I don't understand what the A with approx sign and the boxed x mean
it think it's written 20/(X-6)^2 so it's 20 divided by X-6 squared
I'm not sure why it wrote it the other way
I got X =-6
ok. so take the square root of both sides, now you have plus or minus the square root of 20= x-6
oops. ignore that.
so you not have an equal sign anywhere in the original equation?
is it a question of log
I rally confuse this number And equations too I need exactly help
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Commplementary angles
Idrissa Reply
im all ears I need to learn
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salut. from Algeria
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
How do i figure this problem out.
how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
Chris Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 1; february 2009. OpenStax CNX. Jun 05, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10630/1.9
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