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This line of experimentation led to the development of the so-called expert system. This is a software package that allows the collective wisdom of experts in a given field to be brought to bear on a problem.

Expert Systems

Almost immediately after computer became a reality, scientists were intrigued by what they saw as parallels between how the human brain works and how the computer processes information. They wondered whether the computer could “learn” as well as retrieve and collate information. Their experiments led to computers playing games such as checkers and chess with human experts-and winning. Then they explored whether the computer could enable an amateur to play on an equal footing with an expert. It certainly could. But, they reasoned, why limit this capability to playing games? Why not see if this “artificial intelligence” could be applied to more useful problems?

This line of experimentation led to the development of the so-called expert system. This is a software package that allows the collective wisdom of experts in a given field to be brought to bear on a problem. One of the first such systems to be developed was MYCIN, a program that helps train doctors to make accurate diagnoses of infectious diseases on the basis of tests and patient information fed into the computer. Expert systems are rapidly making their way into education.

Scholastic Publications has developed a unique program that leans the rules of any game as it plays with its human partner. The student may play the game with self-chosen rules but must identify for the computer the criteria for winning the game. The computer absorbs the rules and eventually wins. Another expert system, the Intelligent Catalog, helps a student learn to use reference tools. Any learning task that requires problem solving (e.g., qualitative analysis in chemistry) lends itself to an expert system. SCHOLAR is an expert system on the geography of South America. It is an example of a “mixed-initiative” system. The student and the system can ask questions of each other, and SCHOLAR can adjust its instructional strategy according to the context of the student’s inquiry.

One example that involves individualized learning is an expert system called CLASSLD. Developed at Utah State University, the program classifies learning disabilities by using an elaborate set of rules contributed by experts. In tests, the program has proven to be at least as accurate as informed special education practitioners. The next step is to use a software package that will design an individualized education program (IEP) for children diagnosed by CLASSLD. Because many children with learning disabilities are included in regular chasses, the expert system would make more manageable the classroom teacher’s job of providing appropriate instruction. The school benefits from more effective and more efficient decision making.

Further down the road is an expert system the\at could truly individualize learning. We can imagine a system that learns all the important aptitudes and personality traits of an individual. When presented with a large body of material to master, the learner would use the expert system as a guide to learning the content in the most effective manner. The program would adjust the content, instructional method, and medium to the learning styles of the student. The learner, not the experts, would be in charge of the program. When this becomes possible, we will really have individualized learning.

A professional specialty has emerged from the development of expert systems. The term knowledge engineers has been coined to describe the people who work with experts in a field to assemble and organize a body of knowledge and then design the software package that makes it possible to train someone to become skilled in the area or to enable anyone to call on the skills of experts to solve a problem. The work of knowledge engineering is similar to that done by instructional designers in task analysis and module design.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Multimedia. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11198/1.1
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