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Topic 1. chemistry of the cell

  1. What are the main chemical components of a cell?
  2. What are the structure levels of a protein?
  3. Give an example of the modular characteristic of a protein.
  4. What is a “Watson-Crick basepairing”?
  5. What are the differences between a DNA and an RNA molecules
  6. What are the main weak chemical bonds existing in living organisms?
  7. What are the characteristics of these bonds which determine their functions?
  8. What is the chromatin? the chromosome?
  9. Why is the eukaryotic genome much more compact than prokaryotic genome?

Topic 2. constancy of dna

  1. Describe some experiences showing that DNA is the genetic material.
  2. What is the Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
  3. Describe Meselson&Stahl’s experience about DNA replication in E. coli; what is the meaning of this experience?
  4. What is a replicon?
  5. What are the factors needed for the initiation of DNA replication in E. coli
  6. How are the two strands of DNA molecule being copied from an origin of replication?
  7. What are the problems encountered by the replication machinery at the replication fork ? How are these problems resolved
  8. What are the roles of Helicase, Topoisomerase, Primase, SSB proteins, DNA polymerase III, RNase H, DNA polymerase I?
  9. What are the problems of finishing DNA replication in prokaryotes? eukaryotes? How are they resolved?

Topic 3. variations of dna

  1. What are the main causes of DNA variation? What are their roles in the living world?
  2. How are the mutations being repaired during and shortly after the end of the replication process?
  3. What are the main repair systems used by the cell to repair DNA damages between two replication processes?
  4. What are the differences between homologous and site-specific DNA recombination?
  5. What are the biological roles of homologous recombination? site-specific recombination?
  6. Describe the Holliday model used to explain DNA homologous recombination.
  7. Compare the Holliday model and the Double-Stranded Break (DSB) model of recombination.
  8. What are the functions of RecBCD complex, RecA, RuvAB and RuvC in the homologous recombination in E. coli?
  9. What are the functions of SSR recombinases in site-specific recombination?
  10. What are transposons? How are they being classified?
  11. What are the differences between replicative and non-replicative transposition?
  12. How does a polyA retrotransposon transpose?
  13. How is a retroviral-like retrotransposon transpose?

Topic 4. gene expression – transcription

  1. What are the characteristics of transcriptional process that distinguish it from DNA replication?
  2. What are the components of prokaryotic RNA polymerase? What are their functions?
  3. What are the structure and functions of a promoter?
  4. How does the RNA polymerase initiate the transcription?
  5. How is the RNA molecule being elongated?
  6. What are the mechanisms of transcription termination?
  7. What are the eukaryotic RNA polymerases? What are their functions?
  8. What are the DNA sequences involved in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II?
  9. How does RNA polymerase II function during transcription?
  10. What are the post-transcriptional mRNA processing’s?
  11. Why is RNA splicing a crucial step in gene expression in eukaryotes?
  12. What is a spliceosome? How does it function during splicing process?

Topic 5. protein synthesis

  1. What are the characteristics of the Genetic Code?
  2. What is the Wobble concept?
  3. What are the disadvantages of translational compared to replicational and transcriptional processes?
  4. What are the roles of tRNA, rRNA, mRNA?
  5. What is an ORF? What are the criteria used to define it?
  6. What is the 5’ end structure of a prokaryotic (and eukaryotic) mRNA necessary to its translation?
  7. What are the functions of a ribosome?
  8. What are the structural characteristics of a tRNA?
  9. How is an amino acid attached to a tRNA? What determines the specificity of the reaction?
  10. How is the translational process initiated in prokaryote? in eukaryote?
  11. What are the main steps of translational elongation?
  12. How is the translational process terminated?

Topic 6. regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes

  1. What are the purposes of the regulation of gene expression in prokaryotes? in eukaryotes ?
  2. What are the main mechanisms of gene expression regulation in prokaryotes? in eukaryotes ?
  3. What do you think which determine the differences in the regulation of gene expression between these two groups?
  4. What is a positive control of gene expression? a negative control
  5. What are the structural and functional characteristics of an operon?
  6. What is a catabolite repression?
  7. What is “attenuation” in terms of regulation of gene expression?
  8. How does the alternative use of σ factors fit the purpose of the regulation of gene expression in prokaryote?

Topic 7. regulation of gene expression in eukaryotes

  1. What are the structural characteristics that determine different levels of the control of gene expression in eukaryotes?
  2. What is an epigenetic inheritance? What are the basic mechanisms underlying epigenetic in heritance
  3. Give an example for epigenetic inheritance through histone modifications and DNA methylation?
  4. What are the roles of TRANS proteins and CIS sequences in the control of transcriptional initiation?
  5. What are the respective roles of general and specific transcription factors in initiating the transcription process?
  6. What are the common modules of transcription factors?
  7. How can alternative splicing generate more than one transcript from one gene?
  8. How can transcription factors act at distance?
  9. What are the determinants of mRNA stability?
  10. What are the main mechanisms of post-translational control?
  11. What are siRNAs? miRNAs? What are their roles in the control of gene expression?

Topic 8. methods

  1. What are the main steps of a nucleic acid extraction protocol?
  2. What is electrophoresis used for?
  3. How can one determine the concentration of a double-stranded DNA by spectrophotometric analysis?
  4. What are the enzymes used for PCR technique? What are their characteristics?
  5. What are the principles of quantitative PCR based on the use of Taqman probe?
  6. What are Molecular cloning techniques used for?
  7. What is a vector? What are its characteristics?
  8. What are the main steps of Molecular cloning protocols?
  9. How is a PCR performed?
  10. What are the main steps of Southern blotting?
  11. What is the principle of Dideoxy sequencing? How is it applied in automatic sequencing?
  12. Give a definition for Genomics? Transcriptomics? Proteomics? Metabolomics? Phenomics?
  13. How can Bioinformatics be used to predict gene function from their structures?
  14. What are microarrays used for?
  15. What is the principle of the Yeast Two-hybrid system?

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Molecular biology of the gene. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10799/1.1
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