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Moreover, corruption remains a terrible problem. Most observers agree that the several law enforcement agencies operating at the border are widely compromised. Throughout the country, local police, underpaid, under-trained, and under-equipped, are clearly still on the take. Honest cops run the risk of contempt from their coworkers or of being killed because of fear they will expose the crooked ones. Hundreds of police have been killed since the Calderón initiative began. Some no doubt conscientiously opposed the drug gangs; others, reportedly a majority, simply worked for the wrong gang. Even those thoroughly vetted for trustworthiness may succumb to temptation, or give in when a gang confronts them with the choice, plata o plomo—silver or lead, bribe or bullet.

The corruption extends far up the line. In 2008, at least 35 agents from an elite organized crime unit within the attorney general’s office, including top officials ostensibly leading the crackdown against the cartels, were fired or arrested. According to news accounts, they had for

several years been receiving monthly payments ranging from $150,000 to $450,000 each, in return for keeping the cartels informed about government operations. $450,000 payoffs, see “Levels of Prohibition: A Toker’s Guide,” The Economist , March 15, 2009; “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , October 28, 2008. Payoffs of such size are apparently not unique; wiretaps used to bring indictments against members of the Gulf cartel caught discussions of bribes of $2 million. $2 million, see “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , July 21, 2009. In May 2009, guards at a Zacatecas prison offered no resistance as 53 inmates walked out and drove away in a 17-car convoy. Escape from Zacatecas prison, see “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , July 13, 2009. Later that same month, federal agents accused 10 mayors from the state of Michoacan of abetting La Familia drug traffickers. Michoacan mayors, see “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , May 29, 2009. In July 2010, prison officials in Durango were found to be sending prisoners, using official vehicles and armed with prison weapons, on designated assassination assignments. Mark Stevenson, “Mexican drug cartel inmates let out of prison,” The Globe and Mail , July 26, 2010. At about the same time, 56 members of Tijuana law enforcement agencies were arrested for corruption, adding to more than 400 similar arrests or firings since January 2008. In May 2010, the mayor of Cancun was arrested on charges of aiding the Zetas and the Beltrán-Leyva gang. Ken Ellingwood, “Cancun mayor’s arrest adds to Mexico worries,” Los Angeles Times , May 27, 2010. No one imagines these are the final examples.

Those who criticize the gangs publicly, or attempt to expose the corruption that enables them, do so at their own peril. In April 2009, a Roman Catholic archbishop in Durango wondered publicly why the authorities seemed unable to locate Joaquin “El Chapo” Guzman, the most sought-after cartel figure in the country, since he was widely known to be living nearby. According to the Los Angeles Times, most local media did not report the explosive comments, and copies of national papers that ran the story appeared on few newsstands. A day or two later, the archbishop backpedaled, claiming that he was simply repeating things of the sort people say to their pastor. Archbishop, “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , April 4, 2009. As a further safety measure, he began traveling with bodyguards and ordered an armored car. Tracy Wilkinson and Ken Ellingwood, “In Mexico’s drug battle, the public is missing in action,” Los Angeles Times , December 30, 2009. The timidity of the media in this case is common and understandable. Gangs have attacked newspaper offices and TV stations after they have published or aired stories attacking the cartels or exposing their ties to public officials. In March 2010, the National Human Rights Commission reported that at least 57 reporters had been killed over the past decade, 57 reporters killed, see Tracy Wilkinson, “Mexico crime reporters face deadly perils,” Los Angeles Times , December 29, 2009. supporting claims by the international Committee to Protect Journalists that Mexico is “one of the deadliest countries in the world” for reporters. Many journalists exercise self-censorship, ignoring stories on drug trafficking and confining their reporting to “weddings, quinceañeras, and baptisms.” “Weddings,” see “Mexico under siege,” Los Angeles Times , June 11, 2008. In a stunning admission of helplessness, El Diario, the largest daily newspaper in Ciudad Juárez, after two staffers had been murdered by drug gangs, ran a front-page editorial on September 19, 2010, asking cartel “Lords” to “explain to us what you want from us. What are we supposed to publish or not publish, so we know what to abide by. You are at this time the de facto authorities in this city because the legal authorities have not been able to stop our colleagues from falling.” Randal Archibold, “Mexico paper, a drug war victim, calls for a voice,” New York Times , September 20, 2010.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Cartels, corruption, carnage, and cooperation. OpenStax CNX. May 23, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11293/1.2
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