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One of the basic tenets of orthodox Christianity in all ages has been adherence to the teaching of the Bible. Clerics and scholars have searched its contents for precise meaning; differing interpretations, even on minor points, have led to decades of warfare, national schism, and, ultimately, the geographical and psychological shaping of Western civilization. These searches have produced diverse results because of variation in the skill and bias of the group involved in the research, the evaluative material available to them, and the weight of other authoritative traditions.

Nineteenth-century Baptists, as inheritors of the European and American tradition of religious dissent, supplanted the authority of the church with the authority of the biblical message, personally interpreted and confirmed by a salvation experience. The emphasis was on the individual and, in some cases, insights were arrived at by the lone believer with Bible in hand, but this picture is overdrawn. As soon as groups of believers gathered and formed churches, an organizing principle began working against this atomistic, totally individualistic formula. The movement toward stability often took the form of credal statements and uniform interpretive methods that sought to certify the purity of the gospel that was proclaimed. Granted, subjective sectarianism always carried within it a tendency toward disagreement and division, but there is invariably another pull toward credibility and rationality. Among Baptists, that cohesive power has been tenuous enough to be defined as "a rope of sand and an exceedingly slender rope at that," L. R. Elliott, ed., Centennial Story of Texas Baptists, Chicago: Hammond Press, 1936), p. 6. but one of its strongest links has been complete acceptance of the literal accuracy of the Bible.

The evangelical Protestant groups that proliferated in America's early national period shared a common objective: to return to the "pure conditions of primitive Christianity" Richard Hofstadter, Anti-Intellectualism in American Life (New York: Vintage/Random House, 1962), p. 83. that had been lost or obscured by the corruption of the institutional church. They, like other groups before them, believed that the key to the discovery of that ancient order was the record preserved in Holy Scripture. Without the mediation of priests or ecclesiastical tradition, this written record was viewed as the sole source of religious authority. Although more learned seekers utilized conservative commentaries that referred to New Testament Greek to define key words such as baptizo (to dip, to plunge, to immerse), most church members' religious library consisted only of the English Bible. Their methodological approach to this body of literature has been criticized as being haphazard and unscientific, but it actually partook heavily of the rational scientific method of the eighteenth-century Enlightenment. David E. Harrell, Jr., Quest for a Christian America (Nashville: Disciples of Christ Historical Society, 1966), pp. 26-7. They granted that some mysteries lay beyond the human realm, but believed that those aspects of the Bible that called for man's perception and response were obvious and held no contradictions. "Revealed religion" could pass the same tests of reason and evidence to which any hypothesis or experience was subjected. The evangelicals added an important assumption—specifically, that the biblical record was divine revelation of truth—but their approach was similar to that of the deists, freethinkers, and republicans who affirmed that truth was apparent to and congruent with the rationality and common sense of ordinary men and women. The method and presupposition remained in scholastic good graces until they were discounted by Darwinism in the latter half of the nineteenth century and appear strongly anachronistic in the cynical, pluralistic society of the late twentieth century. The Fundamentalist movement, spawned in the 1920s, was a nationwide reassertion of this early nineteenth-century view of rational biblical authority. Its religious and social dimensions are discussed in Louis Gasper, The Fundamentalist Movement (The Hague: Mouton and Co., 1963); Ernest Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970); and LeRoy Moore, Jr., "Another Look at Fundamentalism: a Response to Ernest Sandeen," Church History, 37 (1968), 195-202.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Patricia martin's phd thesis. OpenStax CNX. Dec 12, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11462/1.1
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