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Listening to others gives a variety of perspectives on how to resolve problems. “…there are many ways to solve any given issue. ….So, I think that it is important to hear their voices,” (High School Principal 83, 6/18/2006). In referring to historically unheard parents, Southwest Elementary Principal 52 (6/8/2006) equated the lack of voice with lack of power. “ ..those parents will not speak up, you know, maybe that don’t feel they have a voice or—or they….—feel powerless”

Examples of shared decision-making that included parents, faculty and students were related to decisions which impacted the entire school. Implementation of block scheduling and seeking input on the best way to be successful on state accountability assessments were cited as successful shared decision-making experiences.

...parents, staff members—certified and classified and students are part of that give and take… if you’re going to do something that’s going to affect everybody’s lives, they need to have some ownership and opportunity to be a part of constructing that, and so kids are heavily involved… (Midwest High School Principal 75, 10/17/2005)

Principals' belief that they were in the middle between school level stakeholders and the district office and superintendent influenced their decision-making. They also desired to be included in the superintendent and district level decision-making process.

…we as building principals, are on both sides …hit from both directions... One is staff members or those that we supervise or are responsible for are asking for more ownership in decisions or more participation in them and we in turn are asking those above us to allow us to be more a part of those decisions that really matter. I don’t think any group of people would understand the full ramifications of that issue better than building principals, because they are truly in the middle (Midwest School Principal 75, 10/17/2005).

Midwest High School Principal 80 (6/18/2006) was even more explicit as he detailed his perception and how he advised those preparing for administration to be cautious of being perceived by the district office of not being supportive or of teachers’ perception of not inviting input. Although in the middle, principals equated the trust of the superintendent with opportunities to provide input and the reciprocal trust represented support of principals’ decisions. “District support equals trust,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 33, 1/3/2006). “Relationships with superintendents build trust in your decisions,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 41, 10/11/2005).

Discussion

Knowledge and skills in decision-making and communication are essential to successfully lead change in schools to improve learning for all students. Creation and implementation of new mental models of schooling can serve all students at a high level and become a reality if principals have the knowledge and skills in decision-making, communication, and empowerment to create a school culture for change. Such change has the potential to lead to equity and access to excellence for all students regardless of family background or economic status, leading to social and professional opportunities (Jean-Marie, Normore,&Brooks, 2009).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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