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Listening to others gives a variety of perspectives on how to resolve problems. “…there are many ways to solve any given issue. ….So, I think that it is important to hear their voices,” (High School Principal 83, 6/18/2006). In referring to historically unheard parents, Southwest Elementary Principal 52 (6/8/2006) equated the lack of voice with lack of power. “ ..those parents will not speak up, you know, maybe that don’t feel they have a voice or—or they….—feel powerless”

Examples of shared decision-making that included parents, faculty and students were related to decisions which impacted the entire school. Implementation of block scheduling and seeking input on the best way to be successful on state accountability assessments were cited as successful shared decision-making experiences.

...parents, staff members—certified and classified and students are part of that give and take… if you’re going to do something that’s going to affect everybody’s lives, they need to have some ownership and opportunity to be a part of constructing that, and so kids are heavily involved… (Midwest High School Principal 75, 10/17/2005)

Principals' belief that they were in the middle between school level stakeholders and the district office and superintendent influenced their decision-making. They also desired to be included in the superintendent and district level decision-making process.

…we as building principals, are on both sides …hit from both directions... One is staff members or those that we supervise or are responsible for are asking for more ownership in decisions or more participation in them and we in turn are asking those above us to allow us to be more a part of those decisions that really matter. I don’t think any group of people would understand the full ramifications of that issue better than building principals, because they are truly in the middle (Midwest School Principal 75, 10/17/2005).

Midwest High School Principal 80 (6/18/2006) was even more explicit as he detailed his perception and how he advised those preparing for administration to be cautious of being perceived by the district office of not being supportive or of teachers’ perception of not inviting input. Although in the middle, principals equated the trust of the superintendent with opportunities to provide input and the reciprocal trust represented support of principals’ decisions. “District support equals trust,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 33, 1/3/2006). “Relationships with superintendents build trust in your decisions,” (Southwest Elementary Principal 41, 10/11/2005).

Discussion

Knowledge and skills in decision-making and communication are essential to successfully lead change in schools to improve learning for all students. Creation and implementation of new mental models of schooling can serve all students at a high level and become a reality if principals have the knowledge and skills in decision-making, communication, and empowerment to create a school culture for change. Such change has the potential to lead to equity and access to excellence for all students regardless of family background or economic status, leading to social and professional opportunities (Jean-Marie, Normore,&Brooks, 2009).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 2 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Sep 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11360/1.3
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