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This section describes how the signal is extracted.

V – signal extraction

Prior to signal comparison, the signals must first be aligned. The first step to alignment is to extract the relevant signal from the entire data segment. To perform this initial processing we smooth the absolute value of the data, and find the maximum of the smoothed data. Given the index of the maximum, we extend the bounds of our hypothesized signal outwards until the amount of energy within our bounds exceeds a threshold percentage. Energy is defined as the L2 norm of the data signal, shown in (5.1). This procedure is encapsulated in the function “extractSignal”.

E = i data ( i ) 2 size 12{E= Sum cSub { size 8{i} } {"data" \( i \) rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} (5.1)

The threshold percentage was determined empirically. Figure 5.1 shows examples of the signal that was extracted for different threshold percentages. Portions of the data that were edited out are replaced with 0. As one can see, thresholding at 90% removes relevant information from the data, and thresholding at 99% retains much of the irrelevant values in the data. We set the energy threshold to 95%.

Figure 5.1: Results of identifying the signal in the data segment based on different energy percentage thresholds. The original data shown is of Nicholas stating the word “one”. Portions that are removed from the signal are set to 0.

Questions & Answers

what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Analysis of speech signal spectrums using the l2 norm. OpenStax CNX. Dec 12, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11143/1.2
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