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By the turn of the century, distinctions were also being drawn between basic (or fundamental) research and applied research, with most arguing that direct government involvement should be goal-directed, and therefore limited to applied research, with universities being the appropriate sites for basic research.

Until immediately after World War II, the consensus held that the federal government had no constitutional authority for education, particularly in privately endowed universities where a good deal of the best research was being conducted. For their part, research universities, their endowments often supplemented with funds for special projects from private foundations, had no need for government support.

World war i and the 1920s

In 1916, Woodrow Wilson issued an executive order establishing the National Research Council and directing it to explore ways to mobilize the nation’s scientific resources in the event that it was drawn into the European war. The NRC was conceived as an organization that could call on a broader range of American scientists than was represented by the National Academy of Sciences’ strictly honorific membership. During World War I, it recruited qualified scientists for military research, with the recruits given service commissions and sent to work in military research facilities. In May 1918, near the war’s end, Wilson issued a second executive order permanently establishing the NRC.

World War I increased the number and prominence of industrial research laboratories in the United States. From a pre-war handful, their number grew rapidly during the war itself and the subsequent decade of prosperity. As Secretary of Commerce during the Harding and Coolidge administrations, Herbert Hoover, himself an engineer, recognized the contributions that government, university, and industrial science individually and collectively could make to national prosperity. He took steps to improve the Commerce Department's scientific bureaus, particularly the National Bureau of Standards, urging them to make greater use of federal contracting authority to obtain assistance from companies and universities. Hoover also exhorted business to invest more in its research laboratories and provide assistance to university research, proposing that industry establish a $2 million National Research Fund to endow projects in universities. Dupree, op. cit ., 340-43. Announced with great fanfare in 1926, initial enthusiasm for the fund waned after Hoover became president in 1929, and the fund itself expired quietly during the first years of the Great Depression.

The great depression and the early new deal

During the Great Depression, budgets and personnel in government research bureaus and industrial research laboratories were reduced substantially. Private universities, with their endowment incomes shrinking, also reduced support for basic research. A strong current of public opinion held the business-oriented scientific establishment responsible for many depression-era dislocations. Secretary of Agriculture Wallace addressed the situation during the first months of the New Deal by advising Roosevelt to issue his July 1933 executive order establishing the Science Advisory Board.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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