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1. conduct scientific activities required for government to exercise its explicit, Constitutionally conferred authority and responsibility;

2. provide services, including generic information, to essential non-government sectors whose sub-units lacked the individual means to support those services by themselves; and

3. offer a locus to support and facilitate research and related activities underlying new technologies of demonstrable importance to the national welfare.

The origins of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provide a good example of the first rationale. National defense was (and is) the most clear-cut area of federal responsibility requiring input from science, and a wide variety of programs initiated under the defense umbrella were later consolidated under new bureaus within non-defense departments. Foremost among these were the extensive scientific surveys of the western lands for which the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1803-05 became the gold standard.

As to the second rationale, the Department of Agriculture, whose progenitor was established in 1862, was the federal government's first and for almost a century its foremost cabinet department, existing primarily on the rationale that government has the responsibility and authority to provide expert information and services to an essential non-governmental sector. Ibid., 149 In 1863, Congress (abetted by the absence during the Civil War of southern legislators) enacted two additional pieces of science-friendly legislation: the Morrill Act, deeding federal land to states on the condition that they build colleges of agriculture and mechanics; and a charter granted to the National Academy of Sciences to create a non-federal institution providing scientific assistance to the government. Finally, the 1902 establishment of the National Bureau of Standards signaled growing acceptance by Congress of the proposition that U.S. industrial needs for standardized, baseline information from government justified a broad interpretation of the constitutionally conferred federal responsibility for maintaining standards of weights and measures. Ibid., 281

The third rationale came into play near the end of nineteenth century, when Congress took its first tentative steps into the public health arena. In 1891, it moved a Marine Hospital Service medical research laboratory from Staten Island to Washington, DC, and renamed it the Hygienic Laboratory. Ibid., 257-58 Subsequently, Congress incorporated the Marine Hospital Service into a broadened Public Health and Marine Hospital Service, which became the Public Health Service in 1912. The same Act of Congress authorized the service to “study and investigate the diseases of men and conditions influencing the spread thereof,” thereby sanctioning the broad involvement of government in the field of public health research. The Hygienic Laboratory expanded slowly within the Public Health Service, and in 1930 became the National Institute of Health.

In 1915, Congress also established the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) with authority to “supervise and direct the problems of flight, with a view toward their practical solution, and to determine the problems which should be experimentally attacked. . . .” Ibid., 291 Composed of five non-government experts and (at the insistence of Roosevelt, who was then Assistant Secretary of the Navy) seven government members, the NACA provided an essential precedent for the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) during World War II, and eventually for NASA, into which it would be subsumed in 1958.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A history of federal science policy from the new deal to the present. OpenStax CNX. Jun 26, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11210/1.2
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