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This module considers the role of missionaries and their relationship with Native Americans in Spanish America.

The Spanish colonization and conversion of the Americas was administered through a series of relations between the Spanish government, soldiers, settlers, Catholic missionaries, and Native Americans. Catholic missionaries became key figures that worked between the natives, Spanish colonials, and Catholic Church. As historian Herbert Bolton says, “missionaries became a veritable corps of Indian agents, serving both Church and State. The double capacity in which they served was made easier and more natural by the close union between Church and State in Spanish America” (45). Although the role of missionaries was facilitated by the intimacy between the Catholic Church and Spain’s government, Spanish Catholic missionaries also held a tenuous position because they worked as both agents of colonization and as defenders of native peoples. This module explores how Spanish missionaries interacted with and represented native peoples by using an eighteenth-century 'Our Americas’ Archive Partnership document “Guevara’s Report to His Excellency, the Viceroy, regarding the Seno Mexicano missions made in the year 1756.” For AP history classes, it would be helpful for teaching lessons on religion, diversity, colonialism, and Native American history.

"guevara's report to his excellency"

This is a picture of the original document, "Guevara’s Report to His Excellency, the Viceroy, regarding the Seno Mexicano missions made in the year 1756."

Teachers can begin by highlighting the geographic location that this report specifies, calling students to understand this discussion as part of a Mexican-American borderlands culture and, on a broader scale, the history of both the U.S. and the Americas at large. In fact, from the beginning this region was part of a border history; it was formulated around the politics of Spanish, French, and English colonization. From the beginning of colonial settlement, borders were important markers of territorial difference. As Gorraez noted, “The distance between Orcasitas and Llera is fourteen leagues; that is sufficient for the community to defend said borders and cultivate their land” (15-16). Seno Mexicano comprises the Gulf coast of Mexico north of Tampico and today includes the Mexican state of Tamaulipas and the southern coast of Texas. Describing the development of the area, Mexican official José de Escandón and Gorraez comment upon the ample resources of the Seno Mexicano, specifically describing the region’s prime location on the Gulf of Mexico (4). Antonio Ladrón de Guevara was the first to petition for the settlement of the area; however, after seven years of debate between Spanish and Mexican official Escandón was chosen as the governor and colonizer of the new province, Nuevo Santander of the Costa del Seno Mexicano. The main subject of the Seno Mexicano report concerns the “pacification, religious conversion, and settlement” of this territory and the natives that occupy it (3).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Catholic missions and spanish colonialism. OpenStax CNX. Aug 09, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11311/1.4
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