<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Budding baseball player in havana

Photograph courtesy of Robert Leon

Contamination

If blood from a person infected by HIV gets into the blood stream of another person, it will infect them also with the HIV. Thiscan happen:

  • If contaminated instruments are used to pierce the skin during:
    • injections
    • circumcision
    • scarrification
    • ear piercing
    • tatooing
    • acupuncture
    (Infection can be prevented if the equipment used is brand new, or is carefully sterilized each time it is used.)
  • From a blood transfusion with infected blood

Blood transfusions may be necessary:

  • after a bad accident, if someone has lost a lot of blood;
  • during a hospital operation;
  • after childbirth, if the mother has lost much blood; or
  • if a person is anaemic due to bilharzia, hookworm or malaria parasites.

If the blood or equipment used is contaminated with HIV, this will be transmitted to the person receiving the blood, and so theywill also become infected.

All equipment used for blood transfusions should be sterilized before it is used. In some countries all blood which has beendonated is tested for HIV infection, and only non-infected blood is used. More and more countries are now trying to do this.

There is no risk in donating blood if the equipment is new or properly sterilized.

(For reading source, click here .)

How does aids affect the eyes?

Cotton Wool Spots - AIDS can cause tiny amounts of bleeding and white spots in the retina. These white spots are called cotton woolspots.

CMV Retinitis - A serious infection of the retina is caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV).

About 20-30% of people with AIDS have CMV. Most infections happen when the number of T-cells gets dangerously low, usuallyunder 40. CMV can damage the eyes permanently.

Signs of CMV include:

  • Floating Spots
  • Flashing Lights
  • Blind Spots or Blurred Vision

Red Eye - People with AIDS sometimes have persistent infections.

Detached Retina - Sometimes CMV causes the retina to separate from the back of the eye. A detached retina can cause a seriousvision loss. Surgery is the only means of reattaching a detached retina.

Kaposi's Sarcoma - Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a kind of tumor that looks like a bump on the eyelid or a spot on the white part of the eye. KSgrows slowly and does not harm the eye.

What are the treatments for AIDS eye problems?

There are two drugs to fight CMV infections. These drugs do not cure CMV, only slow it down. It is important to see anophthalmologist for regular eye exams in case CMV flares up. Early detection of CMV is vital to a positive outcome and if only one eye isinfected, the patient can protect the other eye by taking anti-CMV medicines.

Kaposi's sarcoma can be treated with radiation, laser surgery, freezing or surgery.

Each disease has its own treatment. An ophthalmologist should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis.

Nutrition

HIV/AIDS and malnutrition are interrelated. In fact, in Africa AIDS was initially known as 'slim disease' because of the wastingsyndrome typically experienced by people with the disease. Research suggests that malnutrition increases the risk of progression of HIVinfection, and it may also increase the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby. In turn, HIV infection makes malnutrition worse through itsattacks on the immune system and its impact on nutrient intake, absorption and the body's use of food. Malnutrition associated with HIV infection hasserious and direct implications for the quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS. Weight loss is often the event that begins a vicious circle ofincreased fatigue and decreased physical activity, including the inability to prepare and consume food and reduced work productivity.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Hiv-aids for educators' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask