<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Budding baseball player in havana

Photograph courtesy of Robert Leon


If blood from a person infected by HIV gets into the blood stream of another person, it will infect them also with the HIV. Thiscan happen:

  • If contaminated instruments are used to pierce the skin during:
    • injections
    • circumcision
    • scarrification
    • ear piercing
    • tatooing
    • acupuncture
    (Infection can be prevented if the equipment used is brand new, or is carefully sterilized each time it is used.)
  • From a blood transfusion with infected blood

Blood transfusions may be necessary:

  • after a bad accident, if someone has lost a lot of blood;
  • during a hospital operation;
  • after childbirth, if the mother has lost much blood; or
  • if a person is anaemic due to bilharzia, hookworm or malaria parasites.

If the blood or equipment used is contaminated with HIV, this will be transmitted to the person receiving the blood, and so theywill also become infected.

All equipment used for blood transfusions should be sterilized before it is used. In some countries all blood which has beendonated is tested for HIV infection, and only non-infected blood is used. More and more countries are now trying to do this.

There is no risk in donating blood if the equipment is new or properly sterilized.

(For reading source, click here .)

How does aids affect the eyes?

Cotton Wool Spots - AIDS can cause tiny amounts of bleeding and white spots in the retina. These white spots are called cotton woolspots.

CMV Retinitis - A serious infection of the retina is caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV).

About 20-30% of people with AIDS have CMV. Most infections happen when the number of T-cells gets dangerously low, usuallyunder 40. CMV can damage the eyes permanently.

Signs of CMV include:

  • Floating Spots
  • Flashing Lights
  • Blind Spots or Blurred Vision

Red Eye - People with AIDS sometimes have persistent infections.

Detached Retina - Sometimes CMV causes the retina to separate from the back of the eye. A detached retina can cause a seriousvision loss. Surgery is the only means of reattaching a detached retina.

Kaposi's Sarcoma - Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a kind of tumor that looks like a bump on the eyelid or a spot on the white part of the eye. KSgrows slowly and does not harm the eye.

What are the treatments for AIDS eye problems?

There are two drugs to fight CMV infections. These drugs do not cure CMV, only slow it down. It is important to see anophthalmologist for regular eye exams in case CMV flares up. Early detection of CMV is vital to a positive outcome and if only one eye isinfected, the patient can protect the other eye by taking anti-CMV medicines.

Kaposi's sarcoma can be treated with radiation, laser surgery, freezing or surgery.

Each disease has its own treatment. An ophthalmologist should be consulted for an accurate diagnosis.


HIV/AIDS and malnutrition are interrelated. In fact, in Africa AIDS was initially known as 'slim disease' because of the wastingsyndrome typically experienced by people with the disease. Research suggests that malnutrition increases the risk of progression of HIVinfection, and it may also increase the risk of HIV transmission from mother to baby. In turn, HIV infection makes malnutrition worse through itsattacks on the immune system and its impact on nutrient intake, absorption and the body's use of food. Malnutrition associated with HIV infection hasserious and direct implications for the quality of life of people with HIV/AIDS. Weight loss is often the event that begins a vicious circle ofincreased fatigue and decreased physical activity, including the inability to prepare and consume food and reduced work productivity.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!

Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Hiv-aids for educators' conversation and receive update notifications?