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The following is a short introduction to Besov spaces and their characterization by means of approximationprocedures as well as wavelet decompositions.

An important feature of Besov spaces is that they admit equivalent characterization by multiresolution approximation properties and by wavelet decompositions.

Here we use the following standard notation (see [link] or [link] for a general treatment): if f is function we denote by P j f its projection onto the space V j , and by Q j f = P j + 1 f - P j f its projection onto the detail space W j . The multiscale decomposition of f writes

f = P 0 f + j 0 Q j f .

The projectors P j and Q j can be further expressed in terms of biorthogonal scaling functions and wavelets bases:

P j f : = | λ | = j f , ϕ ˜ λ ϕ λ and Q j f : = | λ | = j f , ψ ˜ λ ψ λ .

Here we use the simplified notation ϕ λ with “ | λ | = j ” meaning that the functions are picked at resolution j . In the case where Ω = R d , thesehave the general from ϕ λ ( x ) : = ϕ j , k ( x ) : = 2 d j / 2 ϕ ( 2 j x - k ) , bur for a general domain Ω = R d proper adaptations of these bases need to be done near the boundary. We can thereforewrite

f = d λ ψ λ , d λ : = f , ψ ˜ λ ,

where we include in this sum the wavelets at all levels j 0 and we incorporate the scaling function ϕ λ at the first level | λ | = 0 .

Under certain assumptions that we shall discuss below, it is known that the Besov norm f B p , q s is equivalent to

P 0 f L p + ( 2 s j f - P j f L p ) j 0 q ,

or to

P 0 f L p + ( 2 s j Q j f L p ) j 0 q .

Using the equivalence Q j f L p 2 ( d / 2 - d / p ) j ( d λ ) | λ | = j p at each level to prove a third equivalent norm interms of the wavelet coefficients:

( 2 s j 2 ( d / 2 - d / p ) j ( d λ ) | λ | = j p ) j 0 q .

These equivalences mean that the modulus of smoothness ω n ( f , 2 - j ) L p in the definition of B p , q s can be replaced either by f - P j f L p or by Q j f L p . Their validity requires thatthe spaces V j satisfy the following two assumptions:

  • The V j must satisfy an approximation property that takes the form of a direct estimate
    f - P j f L p C ω n ( f , 2 - j ) L p .
    Such an estimate ensures that a smooth function will have a fast rate of approximation.
  • They must also satisfy smoothness properties that takes the form of an inverse estimate
    ω n ( f j , t ) L p C [ min ( 1 , t 2 j ) ] n f j L p if f j V j .
    Such an estimate takes into account the smoothness of the spaces V j : it ensuresthat a function that is approximated at a sufficiently fast rate rate by these spacesshould also have some smoothness.

One can show that the direct estimate is satisfied if and only if all polynomials up to order n - 1 can be written as combinations of the scaling functions ϕ λ in V j , or equivalently if the dual wavelets ψ ˜ λ have n vanishing moments. On the other hand, the inverse estimate requires that the scaling functions ϕ λ that generates V j are smooth in the sense of belonging to W n , p . Note that the direct estimate immediately implies that theexpression [link] is less than f B p , q s . A more refined mechanism, using theinverse estimate (as well as some discrete Hardy inequalities) is used to prove the full equivalence between f B p , q s and [link] or [link] . We refer to chapter III in [link] for a detailed proof of these results.

These equivalences show that the convergence rate N - t / d ( N = dim ( V j ) ) can be achieved by the linearmultiscale approximation process f P f , if and only if the function has roughly “ t derivatives in L p ”.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
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Damian Reply
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Akash Reply
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s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
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I'm interested in nanotube
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Ramkumar Reply
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Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer on besov spaces. OpenStax CNX. Sep 09, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10679/1.2
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