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Despite this lack of serious attention by intellectuals through most of the twentieth century, the popular American mind continued to hold to the symbols and tenets of a literal biblical faith with tenacity and to argue some issues on its terms. Women's rights are a prominent example. The same reasoning used in the nineteenth century to detract from the expansion of the female role was used to resist ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment in the 1970s and early 1980s. The creation order of man before woman, particularly in the family, and the inherent weakness of the second sex are ideas founded in the biblical myth and so deeply rooted in our cultural subconscious that, until the late twentieth century, only radical feminists resisted them. Despite the weight this view of woman has borne in supporting disparity of domestic arrangements (and, therefore, of society), no tough, well-reasoned thought was developed to counter it before the 1970s. William L. O'Neill, Everyone Was Brave (New York: Quadrangle/ The New York Times Book Co., 1969), p. 358. Instead, a self-denying, supporting model of womanhood was incorporated into the feminist movement early in the 1900s; and while it provided a comforting rationale for woman's political and economic liberation and helped secure certain advances, including the right to vote, it also limited the scope and degree of real change.

Paradoxically, bibliolatry, as practiced in America, has not been uniform and simplistic in its advocacy of a traditional hierarchy of sexes. Opposing these conservative forces has been an emphasis on scriptural sources that promoted the supremacy of the individual. Central to Reformation theology was a diminution of the efficacy of an institution or its functionaries to mediate between a believer and the deity. Ultimately, that individualistic notion, formulated as the "priesthood of all believers," was a key concept in the cultural revolution that has transformed the western world since Martin Luther's time. The theme was an important one in the centuries of settlement and formation of government in America, and the democratic system that resulted was in many ways a secular manifestation and amplification of its individualistic thrust.

Despite efforts by some colonists to impose communal order and discipline, the abundance of land and lack of tradition in the New World quickly weakened the organicism and hierarchy of the Old. With unprecedented opportunity, individuals stood alone—not just before God, but before an open continent, as well. Those who attempted to maintain a balanced stance toward both the Word and the West found biblical teaching to support their position. The concept of freedom before God was extended to freedom from all institutional restraints and to the withdrawal of the government from exercising any control over religion.

Churches themselves tended to develop into democratic institutions, emphasizing the ultimate power and freedom of the individual members. By the nineteenth century, the pattern of free churches transmitted from Europe to New England reached independent extremes in the proliferation of evangelical sects on the American frontier. Charismatic evangelists vied with one another for the conversion of sinners in a competitive religious scene that had no parallel in the European manifestation of the Free Church tradition. In isolated congregations, lay members decided everything from the call of a minister to the acceptance of newcomers by majority vote, including women among the voters long before they were franchised by the state.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Patricia martin's phd thesis. OpenStax CNX. Dec 12, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11462/1.1
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