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In Learning Section 2 you will be doing a lot of reading and discussing about theories and approaches to learning. Please take amoment now to review Assignment 3 by clicking on "Outline." Looking at Assignment 3 ahead of time may help you to become an active reader takingnotes in a journal while you read about the theories and approaches to learning presented in this section. As you talk with colleagues in the TWB Learning Cafe , you may also wish to take notes. For example, you might spend some time writing in your journal about one ortwo things you heard someone else say in conversation that has sparked your thinking.


Swiss biologist and psychologist Jean Piaget (1896-1980) is renowned for constructing a highly influential model ofchild development and learning. Piaget's theory is based on the idea that the developing child builds cognitive structures - in other words, mental"maps," schemes, or networked concepts for understanding and responding to physical experiences within his or her environment. Piaget furtherattested that a child's cognitive structure increases in sophistication with development, moving from a few innate reflexes such as crying andsucking to highly complex mental activities.


Piaget's theory identifies four developmental stages and the processes by which children progress through them. The fourstages are:

  • Sensorimotor stage (birth - 2 years old) - The child, through physical interaction with his or her environment,builds a set of concepts about reality and how it works. This is the stage where a child does not know that physical objects remain in existenceeven when out of sight (object permanance).
  • Preoperational stage (ages 2-7) - The child is not yet able to conceptualize abstractly and needs concrete physicalsituations.
  • Concrete operations (ages 7-11) - As physical experience accumulates, the child starts to conceptualize, creatinglogical structures that explain his or her physical experiences. Abstract problem solving is also possible at this stage. For example,arithmetic equations can be solved with numbers, not just with objects.
  • Formal operations (beginning at ages 11-15) - By this point, the child's cognitive structures are like those of anadult and include conceptual reasoning.

Piaget outlined several principles for building cognitive structures. During all development stages, the childexperiences his or her environment using whatever mental maps he or she has constructed so far. If the experience is a repeated one, it fits easily - or isassimilated - into the child's cognitive structure so that he or she maintains mental "equilibrium." If the experience is different or new, thechild loses equilibrium, and alters his or her cognitive structure to accommodate the new conditions. This way, the child erects more and moreadequate cognitive structures.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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