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What does he mean in the final line of the passage - "perceptually conscious states have a perceptual format". That is being a little redundant - I mean, if the input from the world is perceptual then it makes sense that it is going to be perceptual in your mind. How the mind interprets, biases, thinks about, changes etc sensory inputs is an interesting question. Also does the mind convert sensory inputs into conceptual ideas? How does the vision of something outside the mind change when you think about that same vision independent of the stimulus? Does the mind use the same representations for different stimuli? - How are representations categorized, identified, utilized and felt by the mind?

Categorizing functions of the mind

The mind has many functions, and thinking takes many forms.

The mind thinks with words, visions and feelings. Any combination of those things could be used in thinking.

Some feelings the mind thinks with are strong feelings, and these probably communicate more information to the person. In fact, unconsciously there could be many strong feelings that are felt to some degree that are also informative.

So I would think that simply a simple sequence of feelings is what lies behind how the mind thinks - and each feeling could trigger thoughts, visions or other associated feelings.

So an example of this would be - 'feeling of friend' followed by 'image of friend' followed by the words 'my friend is coming to visit'.

How are stimuli expressed in the mind?

How are external stimuli expressed in the mind? Thoughts, feelings and words are all used to express ideas and feelings for internal thinking. How then does internal thinking differ from thinking that is the result of sensory inputs? Is a visual input broken down into categories and each of those categories expressed differently in the mind?

So if someone sees a white dog they can categorize it at least two ways - 'an object the color white' and 'a dog'. Each of those properties of the dog might trigger a category in the mind.

How is that different than when you just think of a white dog to yourself, however? Are the same mental nodes triggered or does it have a different mental reaction?

The difference between real world stimulation and internal thinking could be compared to hearing someone speak versus thinking or reading the same material. How the persons mind responds differently might be explained by how their brain processes external vs internal stimuli.

Recalling experience

Thinking must be more complicated than a series of thoughts, words and visualizations that are either internal or external, however.

When an experience is recalled those things might be brought up - but each experience has a different character and that could bring up or trigger a different reaction entirely (that might be separate from the individual stimuli related to the experience).

Of course the stimuli in the experience help make that experience feel like what it feels like - however there are more complicated things occurring. For instance if three visions come from the experience maybe your mind would generate another vision that would be an internal representation of those three images from the experience.

Sensory inputs and internal outputs all are going to combine to form an experience, and the physical inputs might be recalled at various times to assist internal thinking.

Mental reality and physical reality

That means that there is a mental reality and a physical reality. Each has inputs and outputs from the mind.

My guess would be that each input or output has a 'experiential' quality and a cognitive quality. The cognitive quality would be how the factor is understood by your thinking and the experiential quality would be how the factor is understood by your feelings.

So experiences are understood by the mind more unconsciously and understood with feelings, while more temporary inputs from sensory stimulation are felt and understood by a persons thoughts.

Feelings are unconscious - so that is why the complicated aspects of the physical and mental world are going to be experienced and understood there (unconsciously).

Cognition and thought is more simple, so more temporary processes are going to be cognitive such as images and words - however the experience of an event and its experiential qualities are going to felt and processed unconsciously.


Brandom, Robert. Modality, Normativity, and Intentionality. In Lycan, G and Prinz, J (Eds.) "Mind and Cogntion" Blackwell publishing, 2008.

Davidson, Donald. (2002) Mental Events. In Chalmers, D. (Ed.) "philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings" Oxford University Press.

Fodor, J. (2007) The Revenge of the Given. In Mclaughlin, B and Cohen, J (Eds). "Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind" Blackwell Publishing.

Prinz, J. (2007) All Consciousness is Perceptual. In Mclaughlin, B and Cohen, J (Eds). "Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind" Blackwell Publishing.

Searle, J. (1990) Who is computing with the brain? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13, 4:623-642.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, How does cognition influence emotion?. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11433/1.19
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