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What does he mean in the final line of the passage - "perceptually conscious states have a perceptual format". That is being a little redundant - I mean, if the input from the world is perceptual then it makes sense that it is going to be perceptual in your mind. How the mind interprets, biases, thinks about, changes etc sensory inputs is an interesting question. Also does the mind convert sensory inputs into conceptual ideas? How does the vision of something outside the mind change when you think about that same vision independent of the stimulus? Does the mind use the same representations for different stimuli? - How are representations categorized, identified, utilized and felt by the mind?

Categorizing functions of the mind

The mind has many functions, and thinking takes many forms.

The mind thinks with words, visions and feelings. Any combination of those things could be used in thinking.

Some feelings the mind thinks with are strong feelings, and these probably communicate more information to the person. In fact, unconsciously there could be many strong feelings that are felt to some degree that are also informative.

So I would think that simply a simple sequence of feelings is what lies behind how the mind thinks - and each feeling could trigger thoughts, visions or other associated feelings.

So an example of this would be - 'feeling of friend' followed by 'image of friend' followed by the words 'my friend is coming to visit'.

How are stimuli expressed in the mind?

How are external stimuli expressed in the mind? Thoughts, feelings and words are all used to express ideas and feelings for internal thinking. How then does internal thinking differ from thinking that is the result of sensory inputs? Is a visual input broken down into categories and each of those categories expressed differently in the mind?

So if someone sees a white dog they can categorize it at least two ways - 'an object the color white' and 'a dog'. Each of those properties of the dog might trigger a category in the mind.

How is that different than when you just think of a white dog to yourself, however? Are the same mental nodes triggered or does it have a different mental reaction?

The difference between real world stimulation and internal thinking could be compared to hearing someone speak versus thinking or reading the same material. How the persons mind responds differently might be explained by how their brain processes external vs internal stimuli.

Recalling experience

Thinking must be more complicated than a series of thoughts, words and visualizations that are either internal or external, however.

When an experience is recalled those things might be brought up - but each experience has a different character and that could bring up or trigger a different reaction entirely (that might be separate from the individual stimuli related to the experience).

Of course the stimuli in the experience help make that experience feel like what it feels like - however there are more complicated things occurring. For instance if three visions come from the experience maybe your mind would generate another vision that would be an internal representation of those three images from the experience.

Sensory inputs and internal outputs all are going to combine to form an experience, and the physical inputs might be recalled at various times to assist internal thinking.

Mental reality and physical reality

That means that there is a mental reality and a physical reality. Each has inputs and outputs from the mind.

My guess would be that each input or output has a 'experiential' quality and a cognitive quality. The cognitive quality would be how the factor is understood by your thinking and the experiential quality would be how the factor is understood by your feelings.

So experiences are understood by the mind more unconsciously and understood with feelings, while more temporary inputs from sensory stimulation are felt and understood by a persons thoughts.

Feelings are unconscious - so that is why the complicated aspects of the physical and mental world are going to be experienced and understood there (unconsciously).

Cognition and thought is more simple, so more temporary processes are going to be cognitive such as images and words - however the experience of an event and its experiential qualities are going to felt and processed unconsciously.


Brandom, Robert. Modality, Normativity, and Intentionality. In Lycan, G and Prinz, J (Eds.) "Mind and Cogntion" Blackwell publishing, 2008.

Davidson, Donald. (2002) Mental Events. In Chalmers, D. (Ed.) "philosophy of mind: classical and contemporary readings" Oxford University Press.

Fodor, J. (2007) The Revenge of the Given. In Mclaughlin, B and Cohen, J (Eds). "Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind" Blackwell Publishing.

Prinz, J. (2007) All Consciousness is Perceptual. In Mclaughlin, B and Cohen, J (Eds). "Contemporary Debates in Philosophy of Mind" Blackwell Publishing.

Searle, J. (1990) Who is computing with the brain? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13, 4:623-642.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, How does cognition influence emotion?. OpenStax CNX. Jul 11, 2016 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11433/1.19
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