<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

A cyclone is an area of low pressure with winds blowing counter-clockwise (Northern Hemisphere) or clockwise (Southern Hemisphere) around it. Tropical cyclones are given different names depending on their wind speed. The strongest tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Ocean (wind speed exceeds 74 miles per hour) are called hurricanes . These storms are called typhoons (Pacific Ocean) or cyclones (Indian Ocean) in other parts of the world. Hurricanes are the most powerful of all weather systems, characterized by strong winds and heavy rain over wide areas. They form over the warm tropical ocean and quickly lose intensity when they move over land. Hurricanes affecting the continental United States generally occur from June through November.

Ocean currents

The surface of the earth is over 71 percent water, so it is not surprising that oceans have a significant effect on the weather and climate. Because of the high heat capacity of water, the ocean acts as a temperature buffer. That is why coastal climates are less extreme than inland climates. Most of the radiant heat from the sun is absorbed by ocean surface waters and ocean currents help distribute this heat.

Currents are the movement of water in a predictable pattern. Surface ocean currents are driven mostly by prevailing winds. The "Coriolis Effect" causes the currents to flow in circular patterns. These currents help transport heat from the tropics to the higher latitudes. Two large surface currents near the United States are the California current along the west coast and the Gulf Stream along the east coast. Deep ocean currents are driven by differences in water temperature and density. They move in a convective pattern.

The less dense (lower salinity) warm water in the equatorial regions rises and moves towards the polar regions, while more dense (higher salinity) cold water in the polar regions sinks and moves towards the equatorial regions. Sometimes this cold deep water moves back to the surface along a coastline in a process known as upwelling . This cold deep water is rich in nutrients that support productive fishing grounds.

About every three to seven years, warm water from the western equatorial Pacific moves to the eastern equatorial Pacific due to weakened trade winds. The eastern Pacific Ocean thus becomes warmer than usual for a period of about a year. This is known as El Niño . El Niño prevents the nutrient-rich, cold-water upwellings along the western coast of South America. It also impacts the global weather conditions. Some regions receive heavier than usual rainfall, while other regions suffer drought conditions with lower than usual rainfall.

Probably the most important part of weather is precipitation as rainfall or snowfall. Water from the vast salty oceans evaporates and falls over land as fresh water. It is rainfall that provides fresh water for land plants, and land animals. Winter snowfall in mountainous regions provides a stored supply of fresh water which melts and flows into streams during the spring and summer.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get Jobilize Job Search Mobile App in your pocket Now!

Get it on Google Play Download on the App Store Now




Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Ap environmental science' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask