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The temperature of the troposphere is warm (roughly 17º C) near the surface of the earth. This is due to the absorption of infrared radiation from the surface by water vapor and other greenhouse gases (e.g. carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane) in the troposphere. The concentration of these gases decreases with altitude, and therefore, the heating effect is greatest near the surface. The temperature in the troposphere decreases at a rate of roughly 6.5º C per kilometer of altitude. The temperature at its upper boundary is very cold (roughly -60º C).

Because hot air rises and cold air falls, there is a constant convective overturn of material in the troposphere. Indeed, the name troposphere means “region of mixing.” For this reason, all weather phenomena occur in the troposphere. Water vapor evaporated from the earth's surface condenses in the cooler upper regions of the troposphere and falls back to the surface as rain. Dust and pollutants injected into the troposphere become well mixed in the layer, but are eventually washed out by rainfall. The troposphere is therefore self cleaning.

A narrow zone at the top of the troposphere is called the tropopause . It effectively separates the underlying troposphere and the overlying stratosphere. The temperature in the tropopause is relatively constant. Strong eastward winds, known as the jet stream , also occur here.

The stratosphere is the next major atmospheric layer. This layer extends from the tropopause (roughly 12 kilometers) to roughly 50 kilometers above the earth's surface. The temperature profile of the stratosphere is quite different from that of the troposphere. The temperature remains relatively constant up to roughly 25 kilometers and then gradually increases up to the upper boundary of the layer. The amount of water vapor in the stratosphere is very low, so it is not an important factor in the temperature regulation of the layer. Instead, it is ozone (O3) that causes the observed temperature inversion.

Most of the ozone in the atmosphere is contained in a layer of the stratosphere from roughly 20 to 30 kilometers. This ozone layer absorbs solar energy in the form of ultraviolet radiation (UV), and the energy is ultimately dissipated as heat in the stratosphere. This heat leads to the rise in temperature. Stratospheric ozone is also very important for living organisms on the surface of the earth as it protects them by absorbing most of the harmful UV radiation from the sun. Ozone is constantly being produced and destroyed in the stratosphere in a natural cycle. The basic reactions involving only oxygen (known as the " Chapman Reactions ") are as follows:

The production of ozone from molecular oxygen involves the absorption of high energy UV radiation (UVA) in the upper atmosphere. The destruction of ozone by absorption of UV radiation involves moderate and low energy radiation (UVB and UVC). Most of the production and destruction of ozone occurs in the stratosphere at lower latitudes where the ultraviolet radiation is most intense.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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