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Bone markings

The surface features of bones vary considerably, depending on the function and location in the body. [link] describes the bone markings, which are illustrated in ( [link] ). There are three general classes of bone markings: (1) articulations, (2) projections, and (3) holes. As the name implies, an articulation    is where two bone surfaces come together (articulus = “joint”). These surfaces tend to conform to one another, such as one being rounded and the other cupped, to facilitate the function of the articulation. A projection    is an area of a bone that projects above the surface of the bone. These are the attachment points for tendons and ligaments. In general, their size and shape is an indication of the forces exerted through the attachment to the bone. A hole    is an opening or groove in the bone that allows blood vessels and nerves to enter the bone. As with the other markings, their size and shape reflect the size of the vessels and nerves that penetrate the bone at these points.

Bone Markings
Marking Description Example
Articulations Where two bones meet Knee joint
Head Prominent rounded surface Head of femur
Facet Flat surface Vertebrae
Condyle Rounded surface Occipital condyles
Projections Raised markings Spinous process of the vertebrae
Protuberance Protruding Chin
Process Prominence feature Transverse process of vertebra
Spine Sharp process Ischial spine
Tubercle Small, rounded process Tubercle of humerus
Tuberosity Rough surface Deltoid tuberosity
Line Slight, elongated ridge Temporal lines of the parietal bones
Crest Ridge Iliac crest
Holes Holes and depressions Foramen (holes through which blood vessels can pass through)
Fossa Elongated basin Mandibular fossa
Fovea Small pit Fovea capitis on the head of the femur
Sulcus Groove Sigmoid sulcus of the temporal bones
Canal Passage in bone Auditory canal
Fissure Slit through bone Auricular fissure
Foramen Hole through bone Foramen magnum in the occipital bone
Meatus Opening into canal External auditory meatus
Sinus Air-filled space in bone Nasal sinus

Bone features

This illustration contains three diagrams. The left diagram is titled examples of processes formed where tendons or ligaments attach. The image shows an anterior view of the femur and an anterior view of the humerus. For the femur, the distal epiphysis contains a smaller lateral bulge and a larger medial bulge. These are examples of condyles. The inner halves of the two condyles as well as the groove between them compose a facet. An oval-shaped ridge on the medial surface of the distal metaphysis is an example of a tubercle. On the proximal epiphysis of the femur, the large knob that attaches to the hip socket is an example of a head. The tip of the head contains a small depression, an example of a fovea called the fovea capitis. On the humerus, the distal epiphysis contains a central depression that is an example of a fossa. Two condyles are located on the right and left sides of the fossa. The diaphysis of the humerus contains a small ridge running up the shaft that is an example of a tuberosity. The proximal epiphysis of the humerus contains a lateral and a medial bulge that are both examples of tubercles. Finally, a narrow groove runs from the center of the proximal metaphysis in between the medial and lateral condyles. This is an example of a sulcus. The middle image is entitled elevations or depressions. It shows an anterior view of the hip bones. The hip bones are shaped like two wings that join at the bottom. The crest along the upper edge of each hip bones, at the tip of each “wing” is an example of an elevation. A depression on the inner surface of both hip bones just under the crest is called out as a fossa. The right image is entitled examples of openings and shows an anterior view of the skull. The bone underlying the chin is an example of a protuberance while two small holes above each eye socket are examples of foramen. Five green sinuses surround the nose cavity are colored green. These are sinuses because they are hollowed out cavities within the skull bones. A small channel leads into the corner of each eye where the tear ducts occur. These two channels are both examples of a canal. Finally, the bones that form the posterior wall of the eye socket have a small crack running diagonally away from the nose. These are examples of fissures.
The surface features of bones depend on their function, location, attachment of ligaments and tendons, or the penetration of blood vessels and nerves.

Bone cells and tissue

Bone contains a relatively small number of cells entrenched in a matrix of collagen fibers that provide a surface for inorganic salt crystals to adhere. These salt crystals form when calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate combine to create hydroxyapatite. The hydroxyapatite crystals give bones their hardness and strength, while the collagen fibers give them flexibility so that they are not brittle.

Although bone cells compose a small amount of the bone volume, they are crucial to the function of bones. Four types of cells are found within bone tissue: osteoblasts, osteocytes, osteogenic cells, and osteoclasts ( [link] ).

Bone cells

The top of this diagram shows the cross section of a generic bone with three zoom in boxes. The first box is on the periosteum. The second box is on the middle of the compact bone layer. The third box is on the inner edge of the compact bone where it transitions into the spongy bone. The callout in the periosteum points to two images. In the first image, four osteoblast cells are sitting end to end on the periosteum. The osteoblasts are roughly square shaped, except for one of the cells which is developing small, finger like projections. The caption says, “Osteoblasts form the matrix of the bone.” The second image called out from the periosteum shows a large, amorphous osteogenic cell sitting on the periosteum. The osteogenic cell is surrounded on both sides by a row of much smaller osteoblasts. The cell is shaped like a mushroom cap and also has finger like projections. The cell is a stem cell that develops into other bone cells. The box in the middle of the compact bone layer is pointing to an osteocyte. The osteocyte is a thin cell, roughly diamond shaped, with many branching, finger-like projections. The osteoctyes maintain bone tissue. The box at the inner edge of the compact bone is pointing to an osteoclast. The osteoclast is a large, round cell with multiple nuclei. It also has rows of fine finger like projections on its lower surface where it is sitting on the compact bone. The osteoclast reabsorbs bone.
Four types of cells are found within bone tissue. Osteogenic cells are undifferentiated and develop into osteoblasts. When osteoblasts get trapped within the calcified matrix, their structure and function changes, and they become osteocytes. Osteoclasts develop from monocytes and macrophages and differ in appearance from other bone cells.

Questions & Answers

show that the set of all natural number form semi group under the composition of addition
Nikhil Reply
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Lukman Reply
_3_2_1
felecia
⅗ ⅔½
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_½+⅔-¾
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The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
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Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
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combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
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x*x=2
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2+2x=
felecia
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
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find the value of 2x=32
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divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
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use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
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Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
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Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
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Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
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Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
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why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
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I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
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Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
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. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Skeletal system. OpenStax CNX. Apr 17, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11779/1.1
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