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The force applied to the outer surface of each wheel must also beequal otherwise one of them would be accelerating more rapidly than the other, and again the teeth of the otherwheel would break. However, the forces the forces applied tothe axles are not equal. Returning to the concept of levers, we know that the distance from the fulcrum at which theforce is applied effects the force applied at another point, and a wheel and axle works like a lever. Equal forces are being applied toeach wheel, but on the larger wheel that force is being applied at a greater distance from the axle. Thus, for the larger wheel,the force on the axle is greater than the force on the axle of the smaller wheel.

Cams and cranks

Both cams and cranks are useful when a repetitive motion is desired. Cams make rotary motion a little more interesting by essentially moving theaxle off-center. Cams are often used in conjunction with a rod. One end of the rod is held flush against the cam by aspring. As the cam rotates the rod remains stationary until the "bump" of the cam pushes the rod away from the cam'saxle. Cams can be used to create either a linear repetitive motion such as the oneillustrated in , or a repetitive rotational motion such as using a cam and a rubber band .

Cams and Cranks

Cranks convert rotary motion into a piston-like linear motion. The best examples of cranks inaction are the drive mechanism for a steam locomotive and the automobile engine crankshaft. In a crank, the wheel rotatesabout a centered axle, while an arm is attached to the wheel with an off-centered peg. This arm is attached to a rod fixedin a linear path. A crank will cause the rod to move back and forth. If instead the rod is pushed back and forth, it will causethe crank to turn. On the other hand, cams can move their rods, but rods cannot move the cams.



Pulleys can be used to simply change the direction of an applied force or to provide aforce/distance tradeoff in addition to a directional change, as shown in . Pulleys are very flexible because they use ropes or chain to transfer force rather than a rigidobject such as a rod. Ropes can be routed through virtually any path. They are able to abruptly changedirections in three-dimensions without consequence, except, of course, additional friction. Ropes canbe wrapped around a motor's shaft and either wound up or let out as the motor turns.

How Compound Pulleys Work

illustrates how a compound pulley 'trades' force for distance through anaction/reaction force pair. In a double pulley, as the rope passes over the pulley the force is transmitted entirely butthe direction has changed. The effort is now pulling up on the left side of the bottom pulley. Now, for a moment forget thatthe end of the rope is tied to the bottom of the top pulley. The mechanics are the same if the rope is fixed to theceiling. The important thing is that the end of the rope is immobile. The effort is once again transmitted entirely as therope passes over the bottom pulley and there is a direction change. The end of the rope is attached to the ceiling so therope is pulling down on the ceiling with the force of the effort (and half of the force of the load). We assume that theceiling holds up, so this must mean that there is a force balancing out this downward force. The ceiling pulls up on therope as a reaction force. This upward force is equal to the effort and now there is an upward force on the right side ofthe bottom pulley. From the perspective of a free-body diagram the compound pulley system could be replaced by tying tworopes to the load and pulling up on each with a force equal to the effort.

The disadvantages of pulleys, in contrast to machines that use rigid objects to transfer force, areslipping and stretching. A rope will permanently stretch under tension, which may affect the future performance of adevice. If a line becomes slack, then the operation of a machine may change entirely. Also, ropes will slip and stickalong pulley wheels just like belts. One solution to the problems associated with rope is to use chain. Chain ispliable like rope, and is able to transfer force through many direction changes, but the chain links are inflexible intension, so that the chain will not stretch. Chains may also be made to fit on gears so that slipping is avoided.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
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Source:  OpenStax, Notes on basic mechanics for rice elec 201. OpenStax CNX. Jun 12, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10357/1.1
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