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It is now clear that Uganda's decline in HIV prevalence followed positive changes in all three ABC behaviors: increasedabstinence, including deferral or greatly reduced levels of sexual activity by youth since the late 1980s; increased faithfulness and partnerreduction behaviors; and increased condom use by casual partners. In Uganda's particular circumstances, the most significant of these appearto be faithfulness or partner reduction behaviors by Ugandan men and women, whose reported casual sex encounters declined by well over 50 percentbetween 1989 and 1995. This conclusion is supported by comparisons with other African countries.

In addition, abstinence, deferral of sexual activity by youth, and condom use played substantial roles in reducing HIVprevalence. Uganda's successful combination of ABC approaches appears rooted in a community-based national response in which both thegovernmental and nongovernmental sectors, including faith-based organizations, succeeded at reaching different population groups withdifferent messages and interventions appropriate to their need and ability to respond. Young persons who had not yet begun to have sex werecautioned to wait. If a young person had just begun to have sex, then he or she should return to abstinence. If a person was already sexually active, he orshe should adopt the practice referred to locally as "zero grazing" - faithfulness in marriage or partner reduction outside of marriage. Forthose who could not heed this advice, free and affordable condoms were distributed and promoted.

Evidence From Other Countries

While Uganda provides the most dramatic example of the effect of ABC behavior changes on slowing the spread of HIV infection, thereis growing evidence from other countries as well. In Thailand, the first Asian country to face a severe AIDS epidemic, commercial sex was the mainsource of HIV infection. In the early 1990s, the government successfully instituted a "100 percent condom use" policy in commercial sexestablishments, and this policy was widely credited with drastically reducing the spread of HIV infection. In addition to increased condom use,between 1990 and 1995 the proportion of men reporting paying for sex also declined by more than 50 percent. In addition to condom use, partnerreduction in Thailand undoubtedly had a substantial effect on slowing the country's HIV/AIDS epidemic. As in Uganda, the government's willingnessto address the epidemic openly was crucial.

Zambia, Cambodia, and the Dominican Republic are other countries in which various combinations of ABC behaviors havecontributed to declines in HIV prevalence. In Zambia, some decline in prevalence appears to have occurred among urban youth during the 1990s,during which time national surveys reported clear, positive changes in all three ABC behaviors. The grassroots involvement of faith-based and othercommunity-based organizations was crucial in promoting these changes. As occurred in Uganda, the main reported change was a large decline in casualsex among both men and women. Cambodia is replicating Thailand's success in applying a 100 percent condom policy in commercial sex establishments.Also similar to Thailand, the country has experienced a steep decline in the number of men visiting sex workers (from 27 to 11 percent between 1996 and2000). In the Dominican Republic, partner reduction by men and increased condom use with non-regular sexual partners also appear to have slowed thespread of infection.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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