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It is now clear that Uganda's decline in HIV prevalence followed positive changes in all three ABC behaviors: increasedabstinence, including deferral or greatly reduced levels of sexual activity by youth since the late 1980s; increased faithfulness and partnerreduction behaviors; and increased condom use by casual partners. In Uganda's particular circumstances, the most significant of these appearto be faithfulness or partner reduction behaviors by Ugandan men and women, whose reported casual sex encounters declined by well over 50 percentbetween 1989 and 1995. This conclusion is supported by comparisons with other African countries.

In addition, abstinence, deferral of sexual activity by youth, and condom use played substantial roles in reducing HIVprevalence. Uganda's successful combination of ABC approaches appears rooted in a community-based national response in which both thegovernmental and nongovernmental sectors, including faith-based organizations, succeeded at reaching different population groups withdifferent messages and interventions appropriate to their need and ability to respond. Young persons who had not yet begun to have sex werecautioned to wait. If a young person had just begun to have sex, then he or she should return to abstinence. If a person was already sexually active, he orshe should adopt the practice referred to locally as "zero grazing" - faithfulness in marriage or partner reduction outside of marriage. Forthose who could not heed this advice, free and affordable condoms were distributed and promoted.

Evidence From Other Countries

While Uganda provides the most dramatic example of the effect of ABC behavior changes on slowing the spread of HIV infection, thereis growing evidence from other countries as well. In Thailand, the first Asian country to face a severe AIDS epidemic, commercial sex was the mainsource of HIV infection. In the early 1990s, the government successfully instituted a "100 percent condom use" policy in commercial sexestablishments, and this policy was widely credited with drastically reducing the spread of HIV infection. In addition to increased condom use,between 1990 and 1995 the proportion of men reporting paying for sex also declined by more than 50 percent. In addition to condom use, partnerreduction in Thailand undoubtedly had a substantial effect on slowing the country's HIV/AIDS epidemic. As in Uganda, the government's willingnessto address the epidemic openly was crucial.

Zambia, Cambodia, and the Dominican Republic are other countries in which various combinations of ABC behaviors havecontributed to declines in HIV prevalence. In Zambia, some decline in prevalence appears to have occurred among urban youth during the 1990s,during which time national surveys reported clear, positive changes in all three ABC behaviors. The grassroots involvement of faith-based and othercommunity-based organizations was crucial in promoting these changes. As occurred in Uganda, the main reported change was a large decline in casualsex among both men and women. Cambodia is replicating Thailand's success in applying a 100 percent condom policy in commercial sex establishments.Also similar to Thailand, the country has experienced a steep decline in the number of men visiting sex workers (from 27 to 11 percent between 1996 and2000). In the Dominican Republic, partner reduction by men and increased condom use with non-regular sexual partners also appear to have slowed thespread of infection.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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