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It is now clear that Uganda's decline in HIV prevalence followed positive changes in all three ABC behaviors: increasedabstinence, including deferral or greatly reduced levels of sexual activity by youth since the late 1980s; increased faithfulness and partnerreduction behaviors; and increased condom use by casual partners. In Uganda's particular circumstances, the most significant of these appearto be faithfulness or partner reduction behaviors by Ugandan men and women, whose reported casual sex encounters declined by well over 50 percentbetween 1989 and 1995. This conclusion is supported by comparisons with other African countries.

In addition, abstinence, deferral of sexual activity by youth, and condom use played substantial roles in reducing HIVprevalence. Uganda's successful combination of ABC approaches appears rooted in a community-based national response in which both thegovernmental and nongovernmental sectors, including faith-based organizations, succeeded at reaching different population groups withdifferent messages and interventions appropriate to their need and ability to respond. Young persons who had not yet begun to have sex werecautioned to wait. If a young person had just begun to have sex, then he or she should return to abstinence. If a person was already sexually active, he orshe should adopt the practice referred to locally as "zero grazing" - faithfulness in marriage or partner reduction outside of marriage. Forthose who could not heed this advice, free and affordable condoms were distributed and promoted.

Evidence From Other Countries

While Uganda provides the most dramatic example of the effect of ABC behavior changes on slowing the spread of HIV infection, thereis growing evidence from other countries as well. In Thailand, the first Asian country to face a severe AIDS epidemic, commercial sex was the mainsource of HIV infection. In the early 1990s, the government successfully instituted a "100 percent condom use" policy in commercial sexestablishments, and this policy was widely credited with drastically reducing the spread of HIV infection. In addition to increased condom use,between 1990 and 1995 the proportion of men reporting paying for sex also declined by more than 50 percent. In addition to condom use, partnerreduction in Thailand undoubtedly had a substantial effect on slowing the country's HIV/AIDS epidemic. As in Uganda, the government's willingnessto address the epidemic openly was crucial.

Zambia, Cambodia, and the Dominican Republic are other countries in which various combinations of ABC behaviors havecontributed to declines in HIV prevalence. In Zambia, some decline in prevalence appears to have occurred among urban youth during the 1990s,during which time national surveys reported clear, positive changes in all three ABC behaviors. The grassroots involvement of faith-based and othercommunity-based organizations was crucial in promoting these changes. As occurred in Uganda, the main reported change was a large decline in casualsex among both men and women. Cambodia is replicating Thailand's success in applying a 100 percent condom policy in commercial sex establishments.Also similar to Thailand, the country has experienced a steep decline in the number of men visiting sex workers (from 27 to 11 percent between 1996 and2000). In the Dominican Republic, partner reduction by men and increased condom use with non-regular sexual partners also appear to have slowed thespread of infection.

Questions & Answers

How does one analyze a market where both demand and supply shift?
Gabriel Reply
That's equilibrium market
Ramon
but an equlibrum can appear twice on the same market... both in Movement along the Demand/supply curve of shift in the Curve
Gabriel
I Mean on the same curve..
Gabriel
How can we analyze the effect on demand or supply if multiple factors are changing at the same time—say price rises and income falls? 
Gabriel Reply
because of fall of income, less will be demanded and much will be supply as a result of price rises. Rise in price always motivate new supplier to enter into the system. But it only possible in the short run
Kweku
yeah.. I think Ceteris Paribus is applied in this case
Gabriel
that is the law of Demand is Inversely related to the law of Supply... so that mean a positive change in demand may produce a negative return to supply I think.
Gabriel
what are the difference between Wants and Needs
Gabriel Reply
When the price is above the equilibrium, explain how market forces move the market price to equilibrium. Do the same when the price is below the equilibrium.
Gabriel
economic problems
Manishankar
yeah please Explain
Gabriel
I don't know this is my question
Manishankar
no it was a mistake...😂😂 can you explain how Wants and needs differs 😌
Gabriel
wants is what human desire but might not need them, human want are mostly articles of ostentatious while need is what human must get to live e.g inferior goods
Ramon
what are the importance of studying economics
Bherla Reply
To know if the country is growing or not through the country's GDP
Ariel
to manage our resources
TOBI
compare base years GDP and the current years GDP
james
To tell whether a country is growing there are many factors to be considered not necessarily only the GDP due to weaknesses of GDP approach
james
What is the law of demand
Yaw Reply
price increase demand decrease...price decrease demand increase
Mujahid
ıf the price increase the demand decrease and if the demand increase the price decrease
MUBARAK
all other things being equal, an increase in demand causes a decrease in supply and vice versa
SETHUAH
yah
Johnson
how is the economy of usa now
Johnson
What is demand
jude Reply
Demand is the quantity of goods and services a consumer is willing and able to purchase at various prices over a given period of time.
Yaw
yea
SETHUAH
Okay congratulations I'll join you guys later .
Aj
yes
MUBARAK
demand is the quantity and quality of goods and services a consumer is willingly and able to purchase at a particular price over a given period of time.
TOBI
calculate elasticity of income exercises
HABANABAKIZE Reply
If potatoes cost Jane $1 per kilogram and she has $5 that could possibly spend on potatoes or other items. If she feels that the first kilogram of potatoes is worth $1.50, the second kilogram is worth$1.14, the third is worth $1.05 and subsequent kilograms are worth $0.30, how many kilograms of potatoes will she purchase? What if she only had $2 to spend?
Susan Reply
cause of poverty in urban
DAVY Reply
QI: (A) Asume the following cost data are for a purely competitive producer: At a product price Of $56. will this firm produce in the short run? Why Why not? If it is preferable to produce, what will be the profit-maximizing Or loss-minimizing Output? Explain. What economic profit or loss will the
Falak Reply
what is money
DAVY Reply
money is any asset that is generally acceptable for the exchange of goods and for the settlement of debts
Mnoko
money is a generally acceptable asset used for the settlement of debt and exchange of goods and services,its also flexible
TOBI
what is economic
Stephen Reply
economics is the study of ways in which people use resources to satisfy their wants
Falak
what is Price mechanism
Dhany Reply
what is Economics
ERNESTINA
The study of resource allocation,distribution and consumption.
Emelyn
introduction to economics
Uday Reply
welfare definition of economics
Uday
examine the wealth and welfare definitions of economics
Uday
read book by ml jhingan
Anand
What do we mean by Asian tigers
Aeesha Reply
Dm me I will tell u
Shailendra
Hi
Aeesha
hi
Pixel
What is Average revenue
KEMZO
How are u doing
KEMZO
it is so fantastic
metasebia
uday
Uday
it is a group of 4 countries named Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan and Hong Kong because their economies are growing very faster
Anand
fyn
EDWARD
Please, average revenue is an amount of money you gained after deducted your total expenditure from your total income.
EDWARD
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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