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Table 3 provides a tentative outline of a superintendent management training structure. The scope of thetraining involves many more classroom hours and in field placements. The result will be more costs to students, districts,and states. However, the payoff would be in higher levels of superintendent job performance and in the long run, provide abetter school system.


Superintendent Management Program and Profile

At the conclusion of the university based courses and training provided by the state agency, each studentcould present a composite profile illustrating content learning, experiences, and demonstrated competencies attested to by stateagency tests, university based tests and assessment and feedback from district superintendents. This broad based assessment shouldbe sufficient to convince school boards and communities that a superintendent is competent to manage district fiscal and physicalresources.

Fortunately, most of the management training needed by superintendents is assessable, as there is a right wayand a wrong way to perform a task. In brief, it is a measurable type of training at the pre-service and in-service level.

The principal challenge for a state to develop and implement a superintendent management training programwill be to:

  • Align efforts between higher education programs, professional associations, and the state agency.
  • Require districts to provide release time for training, internships, and apprenticeships.
  • Provide incentives for principals and central office administrators to enter a superintendent training program.
  • Establish a program to continually update and monitor the skills of central office administrators already recognized.


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Callahan, R.E. (1962). The education and the cult of efficiency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Drucker, P. (1985). Effective executive. New York: Harper&Row.

Education Writers Association. (2003). Effective superintendents, effective boards, findingthe right fit.Washington: Author.

Glass, T. E.&Bjork, L. (2003). The superintendent shortage: Findings from research on boardpresidents. Journal of School Leadership, 13 (3), 264-88.

Glass, T. E., Bjork, L.,&Brunner, C. (2000). The study of the American school superintendency: A look atthe superintendent in the new millennium.Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.

Glass, T. E. (1992). The study of the American school superintendency. Arlington, VA: AmericanAssociation of School Administrators.

Glass, T. E. (2001). Superintendent leaders look at the superintendency, school boards, and reform. Denver, CO:Education Commission of the States.

Glass, T. E. (2001b). The superintendent crisis: A review by search consultants. Denver, CO: EducationCommission of the States.

Glass, T. E. (2004). History of educational administration as viewed through its textbooks. Latham:Scarecrow.

Hersey, P.&Blanchard, K. (1988). Management and organizational behavior. Englewood:Prentice-Hall.

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Iacocca, L.&Novak, M. (1987). Iacocca: An autobiography. New York: Bantam Books.

Kowalski, T. J.&Glass, T. E. (2000). Preparing superintendents in the 21st s century. MidwestEducational Research Association, Chicago.

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Lunenberg, F. C.&Ornstein, A. C. (2000). Educational administration: Concepts and practices.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Lutz, F.&Merz, C. (1992). The politics of school community relations. New York: Teachers College.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Overview of public elementary and secondary schools anddistricts: School year 1999-2000. Washington: Author.

Ray, J.R., Hack, W.G.,&Candoli, C. (2001). (7th ed). School business administration: A planningapproach. Boston:Allyn&Bacon.

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Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
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What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
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Bob Reply
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Damian Reply
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
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Devang Reply
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fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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