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Table 3 provides a tentative outline of a superintendent management training structure. The scope of thetraining involves many more classroom hours and in field placements. The result will be more costs to students, districts,and states. However, the payoff would be in higher levels of superintendent job performance and in the long run, provide abetter school system.

Conclusion

Superintendent Management Program and Profile

At the conclusion of the university based courses and training provided by the state agency, each studentcould present a composite profile illustrating content learning, experiences, and demonstrated competencies attested to by stateagency tests, university based tests and assessment and feedback from district superintendents. This broad based assessment shouldbe sufficient to convince school boards and communities that a superintendent is competent to manage district fiscal and physicalresources.

Fortunately, most of the management training needed by superintendents is assessable, as there is a right wayand a wrong way to perform a task. In brief, it is a measurable type of training at the pre-service and in-service level.

The principal challenge for a state to develop and implement a superintendent management training programwill be to:

  • Align efforts between higher education programs, professional associations, and the state agency.
  • Require districts to provide release time for training, internships, and apprenticeships.
  • Provide incentives for principals and central office administrators to enter a superintendent training program.
  • Establish a program to continually update and monitor the skills of central office administrators already recognized.

References

American School Board Association/National School Board Association. (2000). Roles and responsibilities:school boards and superintendents. Arlington: American Association of School Administrators.

Callahan, R.E. (1962). The education and the cult of efficiency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Council of Chief State School Officers. (1996). Interstate school leaders’licensure consortium: standards for school leaders. Washington: Author.

Cuban, L. (1976). Urban school chiefs under fire. Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Drucker, P. (1985). Effective executive. New York: Harper&Row.

Education Writers Association. (2003). Effective superintendents, effective boards, findingthe right fit.Washington: Author.

Glass, T. E.&Bjork, L. (2003). The superintendent shortage: Findings from research on boardpresidents. Journal of School Leadership, 13 (3), 264-88.

Glass, T. E., Bjork, L.,&Brunner, C. (2000). The study of the American school superintendency: A look atthe superintendent in the new millennium.Arlington, VA: American Association of School Administrators.

Glass, T. E. (1992). The study of the American school superintendency. Arlington, VA: AmericanAssociation of School Administrators.

Glass, T. E. (2001). Superintendent leaders look at the superintendency, school boards, and reform. Denver, CO:Education Commission of the States.

Glass, T. E. (2001b). The superintendent crisis: A review by search consultants. Denver, CO: EducationCommission of the States.

Glass, T. E. (2004). History of educational administration as viewed through its textbooks. Latham:Scarecrow.

Hersey, P.&Blanchard, K. (1988). Management and organizational behavior. Englewood:Prentice-Hall.

Hoyle, J. (1993) Professional standards for the superintendent. Arlington, VA: American Association of SchoolAdministrators.

Hoyle, J., Bjork, L., Collier, V.,&Glass, T. (2004). The superintendent as CEO. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin

Iacocca, L.&Novak, M. (1987). Iacocca: An autobiography. New York: Bantam Books.

Kowalski, T. J.&Glass, T. E. (2000). Preparing superintendents in the 21st s century. MidwestEducational Research Association, Chicago.

Kowalski, T. J. (2001). The superintendency. Saddle River: Prentice-Hall

Lunenberg, F. C.&Ornstein, A. C. (2000). Educational administration: Concepts and practices.Belmont, CA: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.

Lutz, F.&Merz, C. (1992). The politics of school community relations. New York: Teachers College.

National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Overview of public elementary and secondary schools anddistricts: School year 1999-2000. Washington: Author.

Ray, J.R., Hack, W.G.,&Candoli, C. (2001). (7th ed). School business administration: A planningapproach. Boston:Allyn&Bacon.

Zaleznick, A. (2004). Managers and Leaders: Are they different? Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 74-81.(Original work published 1977)

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
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Sahil
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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