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This application of generic“principal standards”may be due to the traditional structure of manyuniversity superintendent programs being extensions of principal preparation (Kowalski&Glass, 2000). Standards developed by the Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium and the NationalPolicy Board for Education Administration. Standards documents essentially are guidelines pointing out“general”areas of concern to the profession.

Administrators typically“space”their university preparation program out over many years. A good exampleof“time”displacement is that an initial school law class taken in the principal preparation will be followed by an advanced class inthe educational specialist or doctoral program. This is often not the case (Kowalski&Glass, 2000). This part-time effort toward administrator preparation results in a situation where theuniversity programs are populated by part-time students in very drawn out part-time and poorly sequenced programs.

The national number of superintendents yearly“needing”new certificates is about 2,200, as the superintendent turnover rate has hovered around 14 % for several decades.Superintendent tenure currently is between 6 to 7 years (Glass, 2003b). Critics argue there are hundreds to thousands of“unused”superintendent certificates. This is true but superintendent applicant pools are more and more“local”each year. Applicants apply frequently only for nearby positions. About 60 % ofsuperintendents have a professionally employed“trailing spouse”(Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000).

Most states grant superintendent certification in toto for districts of all sizes and types. Somestates require superintendents participate minimally in“Administrator Academy”programs but for the most part“actual”superintendent preparation is through on the job training supplemented by university content laden coursework. Entry into thefield is through self-selection from a career path beginning with classroom teaching (about 5 years). Superintendents fromnon-teaching backgrounds presently hold a very small number of superintendencies (Glass, 2002b).

Higher Education Preparation

Traditionally, superintendents have gained access to credentials and positions through attendance inuniversity based (heavily management based) degree and credential programs. In past decades most states have required about 30semester hours of coursework beyond the masters degree for a superintendent’s credential. In numerous educational administration programs this 30 to 36 semester hours culminates in an educationalspecialist’s degree. Or, it satisfies a significant portion of the coursework required for a doctoral degree.

University coursework, theoretically training superintendents to be“management experts”beyond the principal’s office, requires courses in school finance, personneladministration, school law, and very occasionally facility planning. In recent years many, if not most, educationaladministration programs have eliminated“management”types of courses in favor of policy and leadership since superintendentsshould be“leaders”not mere managers. The result has been the majority of“management”training has been through on the job experiences and spasmodic or periodic in-service training providedby districts or state agencies (many times by private vendors).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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