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Large private sector organizations with multimillion dollar budgets hire professional management at senior,middle, and lower levels. Managers in the private sector are typically trained prior to employment. In school districts,management personnel often receive basic management training after initial hiring. Private sector organizations far outspend schooldistricts in providing professional development training for managers at all levels.

More than 70% of superintendents are former secondary school principals (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000). This role usually affords a limited opportunity to participate inthe development of district revenue plans, manage cash accounts, plan budgets, manage facilities, purchase materials, and supervisepersonnel management activities.

Middle school and elementary principals supervising fewer students, teachers, staff, and less complexprograms typically have less opportunity to perform managerial functions similar to those in the central office.

In districts using forms of site based management, principals may be responsible for a myriad of(oftentimes inadequately supported) management functions separate from contact from“connecting”district central office management roles. Site based management models may even restrict principalknowledge of important central office management functions (Lunenberg&Ornstein, 2000).

Principals in large districts may spend a whole career never developing more than a superficial knowledge ofdistrict financial and operation management. This is not likely to occur in small districts. In very small districts, principals aretypically required to be lead managers for selected district-wide management functions.

Initial training for current superintendents to perform and supervise district level management activitiesideally begins during the initial assistant principal level and continues to principal and central office experience. Most newsuperintendents today possess central office experience prior to the superintendency. There should be a seamless path ofprofessional development in management training, abilities, and experiences. Today, educational administration training andpreparation is conceptually disjointed between building and central office levels.

In the last decade, a majority of new superintendents have come from the ranks of central officeadministrators than in past decades (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000; Glass, 2002). This change in traditional career path offersopportunities for future superintendents to begin articulated training for district executive management while serving in bothbuilding and central office administrative roles.

Current Paths of Preparation

Along with current discrepancies in superintendent preparation, certification requirements vary fromstate to state. In the past certification requirements have“driven”content of superintendent preparation. Certification or licensing codes generally require university coursework and passinga written exam. In about 30 states, the certification or licensure code is closely or loosely based on 6 standards developed for a“generic”K-12 principal position (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1996).

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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