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Large private sector organizations with multimillion dollar budgets hire professional management at senior,middle, and lower levels. Managers in the private sector are typically trained prior to employment. In school districts,management personnel often receive basic management training after initial hiring. Private sector organizations far outspend schooldistricts in providing professional development training for managers at all levels.

More than 70% of superintendents are former secondary school principals (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000). This role usually affords a limited opportunity to participate inthe development of district revenue plans, manage cash accounts, plan budgets, manage facilities, purchase materials, and supervisepersonnel management activities.

Middle school and elementary principals supervising fewer students, teachers, staff, and less complexprograms typically have less opportunity to perform managerial functions similar to those in the central office.

In districts using forms of site based management, principals may be responsible for a myriad of(oftentimes inadequately supported) management functions separate from contact from“connecting”district central office management roles. Site based management models may even restrict principalknowledge of important central office management functions (Lunenberg&Ornstein, 2000).

Principals in large districts may spend a whole career never developing more than a superficial knowledge ofdistrict financial and operation management. This is not likely to occur in small districts. In very small districts, principals aretypically required to be lead managers for selected district-wide management functions.

Initial training for current superintendents to perform and supervise district level management activitiesideally begins during the initial assistant principal level and continues to principal and central office experience. Most newsuperintendents today possess central office experience prior to the superintendency. There should be a seamless path ofprofessional development in management training, abilities, and experiences. Today, educational administration training andpreparation is conceptually disjointed between building and central office levels.

In the last decade, a majority of new superintendents have come from the ranks of central officeadministrators than in past decades (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000; Glass, 2002). This change in traditional career path offersopportunities for future superintendents to begin articulated training for district executive management while serving in bothbuilding and central office administrative roles.

Current Paths of Preparation

Along with current discrepancies in superintendent preparation, certification requirements vary fromstate to state. In the past certification requirements have“driven”content of superintendent preparation. Certification or licensing codes generally require university coursework and passinga written exam. In about 30 states, the certification or licensure code is closely or loosely based on 6 standards developed for a“generic”K-12 principal position (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1996).

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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