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Large private sector organizations with multimillion dollar budgets hire professional management at senior,middle, and lower levels. Managers in the private sector are typically trained prior to employment. In school districts,management personnel often receive basic management training after initial hiring. Private sector organizations far outspend schooldistricts in providing professional development training for managers at all levels.

More than 70% of superintendents are former secondary school principals (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000). This role usually affords a limited opportunity to participate inthe development of district revenue plans, manage cash accounts, plan budgets, manage facilities, purchase materials, and supervisepersonnel management activities.

Middle school and elementary principals supervising fewer students, teachers, staff, and less complexprograms typically have less opportunity to perform managerial functions similar to those in the central office.

In districts using forms of site based management, principals may be responsible for a myriad of(oftentimes inadequately supported) management functions separate from contact from“connecting”district central office management roles. Site based management models may even restrict principalknowledge of important central office management functions (Lunenberg&Ornstein, 2000).

Principals in large districts may spend a whole career never developing more than a superficial knowledge ofdistrict financial and operation management. This is not likely to occur in small districts. In very small districts, principals aretypically required to be lead managers for selected district-wide management functions.

Initial training for current superintendents to perform and supervise district level management activitiesideally begins during the initial assistant principal level and continues to principal and central office experience. Most newsuperintendents today possess central office experience prior to the superintendency. There should be a seamless path ofprofessional development in management training, abilities, and experiences. Today, educational administration training andpreparation is conceptually disjointed between building and central office levels.

In the last decade, a majority of new superintendents have come from the ranks of central officeadministrators than in past decades (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000; Glass, 2002). This change in traditional career path offersopportunities for future superintendents to begin articulated training for district executive management while serving in bothbuilding and central office administrative roles.

Current Paths of Preparation

Along with current discrepancies in superintendent preparation, certification requirements vary fromstate to state. In the past certification requirements have“driven”content of superintendent preparation. Certification or licensing codes generally require university coursework and passinga written exam. In about 30 states, the certification or licensure code is closely or loosely based on 6 standards developed for a“generic”K-12 principal position (Council of Chief State School Officers, 1996).

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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