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In developing a comparable table for large urban districts, nearly all of the X’s would be inserted into the Level 1 category as the superintendent would primarily be asupervisor of management performed by key senior managers and lower level designees. In a very small district, the majority of the X’s would be found in Level 4, meaning the superintendent performsnearly all the tasks. The point made is the variability between management roles of superintendents in districts of varyingsizes.

A Superintendent Leadership Matrix

The role of the superintendent is certainly that of executive leader. In the role, there is both a managerialimperative and a leadership imperative. One cannot be separated from the other without removing expectation foreffectiveness.

The inclusion of a leadership matrix in this paper, focused on management, is because each leadership taskincludes management planning and execution. Leaders are often said to be those who do the right things and managers are those who dothings right. This paper’s point is that“right things”must be done“right”, thus a leadership matrix corresponding to the management matrix.

In Table 2, the superintendent in the 2,400 student district coordinates others, works with others, and does agreat deal of“hands on”leadership. This means the superintendent motivates, works with, and supervises others in these importantleadership activities.

Instructional Leadership Also Requires Management

The list of superintendent activities in Table 2 requires both leadership and management actions. Each ofthe activities must have leadership and management support from the central administration to be effective at the building level. Agood example is curriculum management responsibilities found in special education and Title I programs requiring day to daymanagement action.

A serious miscalculation of school reformers has been that“schools”can be“fixed”at the neighborhood level. For schools to work at the neighborhood level, they must have thetimely and appropriate support from their“corporate headquarters”-- the central administration.

Special note should be taken of the superintendent role in community relations. In all district sizesthey are the“front line”person working with community groups and responding to citizen concerns. Due to high public visibility,superintendents must put community relations at the forefront of agendas and schedules. This considerable part of the working dayoften makes completing other management tasks more difficult and creates job stress. The AASA Ten Year studies from 1910 through2000 show the superintendency to be victim of ever increasing stress. In the 2000, AASA study superintendents indicate the job tobe“very stressful”(Glass, 2003b).

Training Superintendents to Lead District Management

School districts with budgets of a million or a billion dollars require competent professional management andeffective leadership. Currently, some management responsibility is performed by managers lacking background in professional education.However, in a majority of districts key management positions are occupied by former teachers and principals. It is likely fewsuperintendents and assistant superintendents envisaged a career in upper level management when entering the teaching field (Glass,1992).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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