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In developing a comparable table for large urban districts, nearly all of the X’s would be inserted into the Level 1 category as the superintendent would primarily be asupervisor of management performed by key senior managers and lower level designees. In a very small district, the majority of the X’s would be found in Level 4, meaning the superintendent performsnearly all the tasks. The point made is the variability between management roles of superintendents in districts of varyingsizes.

A Superintendent Leadership Matrix

The role of the superintendent is certainly that of executive leader. In the role, there is both a managerialimperative and a leadership imperative. One cannot be separated from the other without removing expectation foreffectiveness.

The inclusion of a leadership matrix in this paper, focused on management, is because each leadership taskincludes management planning and execution. Leaders are often said to be those who do the right things and managers are those who dothings right. This paper’s point is that“right things”must be done“right”, thus a leadership matrix corresponding to the management matrix.

In Table 2, the superintendent in the 2,400 student district coordinates others, works with others, and does agreat deal of“hands on”leadership. This means the superintendent motivates, works with, and supervises others in these importantleadership activities.

Instructional Leadership Also Requires Management

The list of superintendent activities in Table 2 requires both leadership and management actions. Each ofthe activities must have leadership and management support from the central administration to be effective at the building level. Agood example is curriculum management responsibilities found in special education and Title I programs requiring day to daymanagement action.

A serious miscalculation of school reformers has been that“schools”can be“fixed”at the neighborhood level. For schools to work at the neighborhood level, they must have thetimely and appropriate support from their“corporate headquarters”-- the central administration.

Special note should be taken of the superintendent role in community relations. In all district sizesthey are the“front line”person working with community groups and responding to citizen concerns. Due to high public visibility,superintendents must put community relations at the forefront of agendas and schedules. This considerable part of the working dayoften makes completing other management tasks more difficult and creates job stress. The AASA Ten Year studies from 1910 through2000 show the superintendency to be victim of ever increasing stress. In the 2000, AASA study superintendents indicate the job tobe“very stressful”(Glass, 2003b).

Training Superintendents to Lead District Management

School districts with budgets of a million or a billion dollars require competent professional management andeffective leadership. Currently, some management responsibility is performed by managers lacking background in professional education.However, in a majority of districts key management positions are occupied by former teachers and principals. It is likely fewsuperintendents and assistant superintendents envisaged a career in upper level management when entering the teaching field (Glass,1992).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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