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In developing a comparable table for large urban districts, nearly all of the X’s would be inserted into the Level 1 category as the superintendent would primarily be asupervisor of management performed by key senior managers and lower level designees. In a very small district, the majority of the X’s would be found in Level 4, meaning the superintendent performsnearly all the tasks. The point made is the variability between management roles of superintendents in districts of varyingsizes.

A Superintendent Leadership Matrix

The role of the superintendent is certainly that of executive leader. In the role, there is both a managerialimperative and a leadership imperative. One cannot be separated from the other without removing expectation foreffectiveness.

The inclusion of a leadership matrix in this paper, focused on management, is because each leadership taskincludes management planning and execution. Leaders are often said to be those who do the right things and managers are those who dothings right. This paper’s point is that“right things”must be done“right”, thus a leadership matrix corresponding to the management matrix.

In Table 2, the superintendent in the 2,400 student district coordinates others, works with others, and does agreat deal of“hands on”leadership. This means the superintendent motivates, works with, and supervises others in these importantleadership activities.

Instructional Leadership Also Requires Management

The list of superintendent activities in Table 2 requires both leadership and management actions. Each ofthe activities must have leadership and management support from the central administration to be effective at the building level. Agood example is curriculum management responsibilities found in special education and Title I programs requiring day to daymanagement action.

A serious miscalculation of school reformers has been that“schools”can be“fixed”at the neighborhood level. For schools to work at the neighborhood level, they must have thetimely and appropriate support from their“corporate headquarters”-- the central administration.

Special note should be taken of the superintendent role in community relations. In all district sizesthey are the“front line”person working with community groups and responding to citizen concerns. Due to high public visibility,superintendents must put community relations at the forefront of agendas and schedules. This considerable part of the working dayoften makes completing other management tasks more difficult and creates job stress. The AASA Ten Year studies from 1910 through2000 show the superintendency to be victim of ever increasing stress. In the 2000, AASA study superintendents indicate the job tobe“very stressful”(Glass, 2003b).

Training Superintendents to Lead District Management

School districts with budgets of a million or a billion dollars require competent professional management andeffective leadership. Currently, some management responsibility is performed by managers lacking background in professional education.However, in a majority of districts key management positions are occupied by former teachers and principals. It is likely fewsuperintendents and assistant superintendents envisaged a career in upper level management when entering the teaching field (Glass,1992).

Questions & Answers

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Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
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carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
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s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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