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Student Attendance

Accurate management of the district’s attendance program is critical. In most states the district’s state revenue is driven by attendance count. State reporting forsecondary school drop-outs is becoming a frustrating management problem for many districts and superintendents due to NCLBlegislation.

Support Services Management

Student Transportation

If buses do not run, many districts do not run. Transporting children to and from school safely is animportant legal responsibility for the district and superintendent. Management systems creating bus routes, bus replacement,maintenance, and personnel is a critical management function.

Food Services

Food service operations take place daily in school districts and consume district resources in buildings,personnel, utilities, budget, supervision, and required management hours.

Legal and Professional Services

Districts employ the services of attorneys on a frequent, if not permanent, basis. Superintendents must be ableto use these services to be the best financial benefit to the district. Other professional services managed by the superintendentare certified public accountants, engineers, architects, and medical personnel.

Outsourcing Services

Many districts currently outsource services such as payroll, food service, janitorial service, technology, andtransportation. Superintendents are required to be competent in understanding bids, contracts, contract management, and evaluationof out sourced services.

The Context of Superintendent Management

The level of superintendent participation in the preceding management areas is primarily determined by districtsize, not training, experience, or personal inclination. The number of district administrators or managers available to work with orunder the supervision of the superintendent to accomplish management tasks typically depends on available dollars, enrollmentsize, and board approval. Larger districts have larger central office staffs allowing the superintendent to assign and delegatemany management responsibilities. In most American school districts, superintendents perform the tasks themselves or sharethem with one or two other administrators.

While superintendents may“delegate”tasks to other administrators and managers, they still retain supervisoryand oversight responsibility to insure the management task is completed promptly and correctly. Importantly, they are ultimatelyresponsible to the board, community, and the state for effective and legal districtmanagement.

There appear to be four identifiable superintendent management roles within the nations 14,500 schooldistricts. Again, the size of the district largely determines the context of the role. The district size categories used in thispaper illustrate or describe four superintendent“management”break out roles. These size groups have been used in the last fifty yearsin the American Association of School Administrator’s“Ten Year”superintendent studies.

The very large districts serve more than 25,000 students. There are 225 of these districts. The second sizecategory is large districts serving 3,000 to 25,000 students. About 2,700 districts fall into this category. There are 7,400 mediumsize districts enrolling 300 to 3,000 students each. The fourth and last category is small districts, which is comprised of 2,300districts. Each of the small districts is comprised of 300 or fewer students. The average size of the nearly 14,000 functioning schooldistricts in the United States is about 2,400 students (Glass, Bjork,&Brunner, 2000).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Educational administration: the roles of leadership and management. OpenStax CNX. Jul 25, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10441/1.1
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