0.3 Modelling corruption  (Page 6/11)

 Page 6 / 11 The function w ( t ) = δ ( t + 10 ) - 2 δ ( t + 1 ) + 3 δ ( t - 5 ) consisting of three weighted δ functions is represented graphically as three weighted arrows at t = -10, -1, 5, weighted by the appropriate constants.

The discrete time counterpart of $\delta \left(t\right)$ is the (discrete) delta function

$\delta \left[k\right]=\left\{\begin{array}{cc}1\hfill & k=0\hfill \\ 0\hfill & k\ne 0\hfill \end{array}\right).$

While there are a few subtleties (i.e., differences) between $\delta \left(t\right)$ and $\delta \left[k\right]$ , for the most part they act analogously. For example, the program specdelta.m calculates the spectrum of the (discrete) delta function.

time=2; % length of timeTs=1/100;                   % time interval between samples t=Ts:Ts:time;               % create time vectorx=zeros(size(t));           % create signal of all zeros x(1)=1;% delta function plotspec(x,Ts)              % draw waveform and spectrum

The output of specdelta.m is shown in [link] . As expected from [link] , the magnitude spectrum of the delta function is equal to 1 at all frequencies.

Calculate the Fourier transform of $\delta \left(t-{t}_{0}\right)$ from the definition. Now calculate it using the time shift property [link] . Are they the same?Hint: They had better be.

Use the definition of the IFT [link] to show that

$\delta \left(f-{f}_{0}\right)⇔{e}^{j2\pi {f}_{0}t}.$

Mimic the code in specdelta.m to find the spectrum of the discrete delta function when:

1. The delta does not occur at the start of x . Try x=1 , x=1 , and x=1 . How do the spectra differ? Can you use the time shift property [link] to explain what you see?
2. The delta changes magnitude x . Try x=10 , x=3 , and x= 0.1 . How do the spectra differ? Can you use the linearity property [link] to explain what you see? A (discrete) delta function at time 0 has a magnitude spectrum equal to 1 for all frequencies.

Mimic the code in specdelta.m to find the magnitude spectrum of the discrete delta function when:

1. The delta does not occur at the start of x . Try x=1 , x=1 , and x=1 . How do the spectra differ? Can you use the time shift property [link] to explain what you see?
2. The delta changes magnitude x . Try x=10 , x=3 , and x= 0.1 . How do the spectra differ? Can you use the linearity property [link] to explain what you see?

Modify the code in specdelta.m to find the phase spectrum of a signal that consists of a delta function when the nonzero termis located at the start ( x(1)=1 ), the middle ( x(100)=1 ) and at the end ( x(200)=1 ).

Mimic the code in specdelta.m to find the spectrum of a train of equally spaced pulses. For instance, x(1:20:end)=1 spaces the pulses 20 samples apart, and x(1:25:end)=1 places the pulses 25 samples apart.

1. Can you predict how far apart the resulting pulses in the spectrum will be?
2. Show that
$\sum _{k=-\infty }^{\infty }\delta \left(t-k{T}_{s}\right)\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}⇔\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\phantom{\rule{4pt}{0ex}}\frac{1}{{T}_{s}}\sum _{n=-\infty }^{\infty }\delta \left(f-n{f}_{s}\right),$
where ${f}_{s}=1/{T}_{s}$ . Hint: Let $w\left(t\right)=1$ in [link] .
3. Now can you predict how far apart the pulses in the spectrum are? Your answer should be in terms of how farapart the pulses are in the time signal.

In [link] , the spectrum of a sinusoid was shown to consist of two symmetrical spikes in the frequency domain,(recall [link] ). The next example shows why this is true by explicitly taking the Fouriertransform.

Let $w\left(t\right)=A\mathrm{sin}\left(2\pi {f}_{0}t\right)$ , and use Euler's identity [link] to rewrite $w\left(t\right)$ as

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
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