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Using common attributes

<m:math display="block"> <m:mrow> <m:mi mathvariant="bold" mathsize="2em" mathcolor="Blue"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="italic" mathsize="10pt" > A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="bold-italic"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="double-struck"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="bold-fraktur" mathbackground="red"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="script"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="fraktur" mathsize="1cm" mathcolor="1cm"> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi mathvariant="sans-serif" mathsize=".2in" > A </m:mi> </m:mrow> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

A + A + A + A + A + A + A + A

MathML also enables use of deprecated mechanism of setting common attributes. The deprecated attributes are :

    Attribute values types

  • Fontsize : number v-unit
  • fontstyle(normal | italic)
  • fontweight (normal | bold)
  • color : #rgb | #rrggbb | html-color-name
  • fontfamily : string

However, if both mechanisms are used to set a particular attribute, then new mathstyle attribute prevails over deprecated mechanism.

Specialized style setting tool

The only layout element “mstyle” in the common attribute group is a single point specialized tool to set varieties of style attributes to elements enclosed by “mstyle” element. This is kind of one go attribute setting mechanism, which can set not only the common attributes, but additional attributes inherited from the rendering environment. Further, “mstyle” element can be used to set style attributes on any MathML elements in addition to the five (5) token elements, which implement common token attibutes. In this sense, this element serves as an extremely powerful tool to manage style attributes in MathML. Let us consider setting attributes to token elements as shown here.

Using common attributes

<m:math display="block"> <m:mstyle mathvariant="bold" color="blue" mathsize="1cm"> <m:mi> A </m:mi> <m:mo> + </m:mo> <m:mi> B </m:mi> </m:mstyle> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The "&nbsp;" display looks like :

A + B

Managing values

A lot of coding efficiency in mark up language like MathML depends on assigning appropriate values to the attributes. Usually, there exists more than one ways to assign attribute’s value.

Size attributes may be expressed either in terms of predefined numeric values as “small”, “normal” or “big” or as numerical values. There are vareity of units available to express numerical values. These units are used on the basis of context, some of which are expressed in relative terms with respect to the normal size : “em” or “ex” or “%”. Others are absolute values like “pt” (for point; 1 point = 1/72 inch), “px” (for pixel), “pc” (for picas; 1 pica = 12 points), “in” (for inch), “mm” (for millimeter) and “cm” (for centimeter).

In some cases, number can be assigned to an attribute. The number indicates the relative size with respect to default implementation. The "mfrac" element for example implements "linethickness" attribute. A number, say, "2" indicated that the bar will be drawsn twice in thickness with respect to the default thickness as determined by a particular renderer.

In some cases, like with "mo" element, we can assign terms of predertermined space to space controlling attributes like "lspace" and "rspace". These terms are called "named space". The named space used in MathML may be one of "veryverythinmathspace", "verythinmathspace", "thinmathspace", "mediummathspace", "thickmathspace", "verythickmathspace", or "veryverythickmathspace".

The mathcolor or color is set in three possible ways :

1: rgb scheme : Color is considered to be composed of the components red, green and blue. The component colors may be mixed in various proportions. The components are represented by single hexadecimal digit (0,1,….,9,a,b,c,d,e,f). This number is then preceded by “#” and assigned as : mathcolor =”#00f”.

2: rrggbb scheme : This is a similar to the rgb scheme except that each of the component is represented by two digit hexadecimal number. Thus, smallest pair is “00” and largest pair is “ff”. This number is then preceded by “#” and assigned as : color =”#0000ff”.

3: html-color-name : We can assign mathcolor or color attribute with HTML color names : "aqua", "black", "blue", "fuchsia", "gray", "green", "lime", "maroon", "navy", "olive", "purple", "red", "silver", "teal", "white", and "yellow".

The MathML provides control on individual levels of layout structure elements like "table" element. The control requires setting attributes on individual rows and columns. In such cases, attributes are provided with values, which are read in sequence and applied on consecutive rows and columns as the case may be.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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