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2: Use the name reference known as “entity reference”. Encode the entity reference preceded by "&" and ending with semicolon “;”. For example, we would encode entity reference “beta” as "&beta;" to represent “β”.

3: Use the corresponding Unicode numeric hexadecimal reference. For example, beta is encoded with its hexadecimal numeric reference "U003B2" as "&x003B2;" to represent “β”.

It is evident that keyboard typing is the easiest option. The difficulty is that keyboard supports only a limited numbers of characters. We can type ASCII characters holding “Alt” key and typing numbers from the numeric key pad on the right side of the keyboard. However, this approach is not very helpful as we have no clue of the visual form of the character corresponding to a number.

The best approach for encoding Unicode characters is to create a XML file with extension "xml" in the desktop Word program as instructed earlier in the course. Then, select top level “Insert” menu of the MS Word program and choose “Symbol”.

Inserting symbols

A “symbol” dialog box appears as shown below. It is important that we select the option “normal text” from the “Font” drop down list. Keep selecting and inserting the characters not available on the keyboard, but useful for our application as we forsee. Save the "xml" file under some meaningful name like "unicide characters" and reference the special characters as when required from the file.

Inserting symbols

This technique serves a great part of requirement, but for the characters which do not have visual forms like “ThickSpace”, “ApplyFunction”, “nbsp” etc., which are called ”invisible” characters. But these invisible characters are few in numbers. As such,we can store their entity reference names for easy reference as and when required.

The second approach of using entity reference like "&beta;" is the second best approach as the names suggest the visual forms for many important characters. The third alternative to use Unicode numeric reference in the form "&x003B2;" is not desirable for those who intend to code MathML. Ofcourse, this could be the best approach for software developers – probably a numeric representation would be easier to handle in the programming algorithm.

A list of entity reference along with its display form is presented in the Appendix. The listing is divided in three modules (A to H) , (I to Q) and (R to Z) to accommodate about 900 Unicode characters. You may choose to visit these pages to have a first hand experience of what these characters look like and how they are named.

The example given here demonstrates character rendering, using each of the encoding techniques discussed above.

Display using unicode hexadecimal number

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Alpha is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> α</m:mi> <m:mi> &alpha; </m:mi> <m:mi> &#x003B1;</m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Alpha is displayed as : α α α

Some characters falling under “operator” category, beside dpsce rendering characters, do not have visual display. They are called non-marking characters and are used with “mo” element. These characters are important for the quality of print or alternative rendering like audio rendering. They provide specific and consistent spacing on the operand on which they act, thus distinguishing the mathematical operation from normal character rendering. The non-marking operator are :

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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