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2: Use the name reference known as “entity reference”. Encode the entity reference preceded by "&" and ending with semicolon “;”. For example, we would encode entity reference “beta” as "&beta;" to represent “β”.

3: Use the corresponding Unicode numeric hexadecimal reference. For example, beta is encoded with its hexadecimal numeric reference "U003B2" as "&x003B2;" to represent “β”.

It is evident that keyboard typing is the easiest option. The difficulty is that keyboard supports only a limited numbers of characters. We can type ASCII characters holding “Alt” key and typing numbers from the numeric key pad on the right side of the keyboard. However, this approach is not very helpful as we have no clue of the visual form of the character corresponding to a number.

The best approach for encoding Unicode characters is to create a XML file with extension "xml" in the desktop Word program as instructed earlier in the course. Then, select top level “Insert” menu of the MS Word program and choose “Symbol”.

Inserting symbols

A “symbol” dialog box appears as shown below. It is important that we select the option “normal text” from the “Font” drop down list. Keep selecting and inserting the characters not available on the keyboard, but useful for our application as we forsee. Save the "xml" file under some meaningful name like "unicide characters" and reference the special characters as when required from the file.

Inserting symbols

This technique serves a great part of requirement, but for the characters which do not have visual forms like “ThickSpace”, “ApplyFunction”, “nbsp” etc., which are called ”invisible” characters. But these invisible characters are few in numbers. As such,we can store their entity reference names for easy reference as and when required.

The second approach of using entity reference like "&beta;" is the second best approach as the names suggest the visual forms for many important characters. The third alternative to use Unicode numeric reference in the form "&x003B2;" is not desirable for those who intend to code MathML. Ofcourse, this could be the best approach for software developers – probably a numeric representation would be easier to handle in the programming algorithm.

A list of entity reference along with its display form is presented in the Appendix. The listing is divided in three modules (A to H) , (I to Q) and (R to Z) to accommodate about 900 Unicode characters. You may choose to visit these pages to have a first hand experience of what these characters look like and how they are named.

The example given here demonstrates character rendering, using each of the encoding techniques discussed above.

Display using unicode hexadecimal number

<m:math display="block"> <m:mtext>Alpha is displayed as : </m:mtext> <m:mi> α</m:mi> <m:mi> &alpha; </m:mi> <m:mi> &#x003B1;</m:mi> </m:math>

Save the file after editing as “test.xml”. The display looks like :

Alpha is displayed as : α α α

Some characters falling under “operator” category, beside dpsce rendering characters, do not have visual display. They are called non-marking characters and are used with “mo” element. These characters are important for the quality of print or alternative rendering like audio rendering. They provide specific and consistent spacing on the operand on which they act, thus distinguishing the mathematical operation from normal character rendering. The non-marking operator are :

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A primer in mathml. OpenStax CNX. Apr 19, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10345/1.16
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