# 0.3 Gravity and mechanical energy  (Page 3/9)

 Page 3 / 9

1. Divide into pairs and explain Galileo's experiment to your friend.
2. Write down an aim and a hypothesis for Galileo's experiment.
3. Write down the result and conclusion for Galileo's experiment.

## Research project : experimental design

Design an experiment similar to the one done by Galileo to prove that the acceleration due to gravity of an object is independent of the object's mass. The investigation must be such that you can perform it at home or at school. Bring your apparatus to school and perform the experiment. Write it up and hand it in for assessment.

## Case study : determining the acceleration due to gravity 1

Study the set of photographs alongside showing the position of a ball being dropped from a height at constant time intervals. The distance of the ball from the starting point in each consecutive image is observed to be: ${x}_{1}=0$  cm, ${x}_{2}=4,9$  cm, ${x}_{3}=19,6$  cm, ${x}_{4}=44,1$  cm, ${x}_{5}=78,4$  cm and ${x}_{6}=122,5$  cm. Answer the following questions:

1. Determine the time between each picture if the frequency of the exposures were 10 Hz.
2. Calculate the velocity, ${v}_{2}$ , of the ball between positions 1 and 3.
${v}_{2}=\frac{{x}_{3}-{x}_{1}}{{t}_{3}-{t}_{1}}$
3. Calculate the velocity, ${v}_{5}$ , of the ball between positions 4 and 6.
${v}_{5}=\frac{{x}_{6}-{x}_{4}}{{t}_{6}-{t}_{4}}$
4. Calculate the acceleration the ball between positions 2 and 5.
$a=\frac{{v}_{5}-{v}_{2}}{{t}_{5}-{t}_{2}}$
5. Compare your answer to the value for the acceleration due to gravity ( $9,8\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}m·$ s ${}^{-2}$ ).

The acceleration due to gravity is constant. This means we can use the equations of motion under constant acceleration that we derived in  motion in one dimension to describe the motion of an object in free fall. The equations are repeated here for ease of use.

$\begin{array}{ccc}\hfill {v}_{i}& =& \mathrm{initial velocity}\left(\mathrm{m}·{\mathrm{s}}^{-1}\right)\mathrm{at}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{t}=0\mathrm{s}\hfill \\ \hfill {v}_{f}& =& \mathrm{final velocity}\left(\mathrm{m}·{\mathrm{s}}^{-1}\right)\mathrm{at time}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{t}\hfill \\ \hfill \Delta x& =& \mathrm{displacement}\left(\mathrm{m}\right)\hfill \\ \hfill t& =& \mathrm{time}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)\hfill \\ \hfill \Delta t& =& \mathrm{time interval}\left(\mathrm{s}\right)\hfill \\ \hfill g& =& \mathrm{acceleration}\left(\mathrm{m}·{\mathrm{s}}^{-2}\right)\hfill \end{array}$
${v}_{f}={v}_{i}+gt$
$\Delta x=\frac{\left({v}_{i}+{v}_{f}\right)}{2}t$
$\Delta x={v}_{i}t+\frac{1}{2}g{t}^{2}$
${v}_{f}^{2}={v}_{i}^{2}+2g\Delta x$

## Experiment : determining the acceleration due to gravity 2

Work in groups of at least two people.

Aim:  To determine the acceleration of an object in freefall.

Apparatus:  Large marble, two stopwatches, measuring tape.

Method:

1. Measure the height of a door, from the top of the door to the floor, exactly. Write down the measurement.
2. One person must hold the marble at the top of the door. Drop the marble to the floor at the same time as he/she starts the first stopwatch.
3. The second person watches the floor and starts his stopwatch when the marble hits the floor.
4. The two stopwatches are stopped together and the two times substracted. The difference in time will give the time taken for the marble to fall from the top of the door to the floor.
5. Design a table to show the results of your experiment. Choose appropriate headings and units.
6. Choose an appropriate equation of motion to calculate the acceleration of the marble. Remember that the marble starts from rest and that it's displacement was determined in the first step.
7. Write a conclusion for your investigation.
1. Why do you think two stopwatches were used in this investigation?
2. Compare the value for acceleration obtained in your investigation with the value of acceleration due to gravity ( $9,8\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}m·s{}^{-2}$ ). Explain your answer.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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