# 0.3 Example: using an fdm-tdm transmux to demodulate r.35 telgraphy

Suppose that our design objective is to build a digital processor capable of demodulating all of the FSK canals found in the R.35 signal shown in Figure 1 from "An Introduction to the FDM-TDM Digital Transmultiplexer: Introduction" . Suppose further that we choose to build the demodulator for each FSK signal along the lines of the one shown Note that this demodulator design is slightly different than the one discussed in the section "What is an FDM-TDM Transmultiplexer" . in [link] (a). Both are used in practice. This type of FSK demodulator uses two fllters: one centered at the mark frequency ${f}_{mk}$ and another the space frequency ${f}_{sp}$ . The powers or amplitudes of the two filter outputs are compared to determine whether the signal instantaneously falls mostly in the vicinity of the mark or is closer to the space. The bit synchronizer logic monitors the transitions between mark and space (and vice versa), using the information to determine the right instants to sample the thresholded difference waveform and produce binary decisions.

[link] shows the block diagram of the demodulating process when extended to handle all 24 FSK canals in an R.35 signal. Initially it appears to only be 24 parallel demodulators. On closer inspection however, it may be recognized that the center frequencies of all the filters differ by integer multiples of a single frequency increment $\Delta f$ . This suggests the use of a digital filter bank to compute all ofthe required bandpass filters. We now proceed to see how the system design for this filter bank is done.

The system design of the transmultiplexer/filter bank is specified by a small set of parameters. We determine these parameters as follows:

• $\Delta f$ : Inspection of the frequency allocations for the R.35 signal shows that all possible mark and space frequencies are separated by integer multiples of 60 Hz. Thus it is natural to set $\Delta f=60$ Hz.
• f s and N : With $\Delta f$ determined, the choice of N , the DFT dimension, and the choice of the input sampling rate f s , are locked together. We bound N from below, by noting that at least 48 filters are needed, two for each FSK canal. In principle, the value of N can be chosen to be any number higher than 48. If the use of the FFT is contemplated then N is usually chosen to the first power of 2 or 4 higher than the minimum value [link] introduces some additional considerations in the design of digital systems in which the transmultiplexer is only a part. . Assuming the use of either a radix-2 or radix-4 FFT, plus the use of complex-valued input data, the prudent value of N is 64. This immediately leads to a complex-valued input sampling rate of $N·\Delta f=3840$ Hz. If the input were real-valued instead, then the chosen sampling rate would be twice that, or 7680 Hz.
• L and Q : Wth N determined, we find that L and Q are locked together and that they are a function of the exact filter design used to select the pulse response (or, equivalently, the window function) used to determine the shape of the bandpass fllters. The issues to be considered in the design of the pulse response are discussed in "An Introduction to the FDM-TDM Digital Transmultiplexer: Appendix A" . Without reiterating them here, we observe that following those rules yields a minimum pulse response duration L of about 174. For this application we extend the filter pulse duration to 192, allowing Q to equal exactly 3.
• M : With the input sampling rate set, the decimation factor M determines the output sampling rate at each of the filter outputs. Thus ${f}_{out}$ , the output sampling rate, equals $\frac{3840}{M}$ Hz. The required output rate depends on the types of signals present and the types of processing to be done to them. In the case of demodulating asynchronous FSK signals, experience has shown that the output sampling rate needs to exceed the highest FSK baud rate expected by a factor of four or more. The highest baud rate allowed by the CCITT for an R.35 canal is 75 Hz The other rates are 50 and 60 Hz. . Thus the output sampling rate ${f}_{out}$ must exceed 300 Hz. By choosing $M=12$ , we obtain an output sampling rate of ${f}_{out}=320$ Hz.

#### Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
is this allso about nanoscale material
Almas
are nano particles real
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
no can't
Lohitha
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William
currently
William
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
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Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
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