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The striking observation is that the groups of elements appear “periodically” in the ranking of the elements by atomic number. Looking at the list in [link] , in each case we find, in order, a halogen, a noble gas, an alkali metal, and an alkaline earth metal, and this pattern repeats itself over and over again. This observation is called the Periodic Law, and it is the reason that the usual table of the elements is called the “Periodic Table,” which is arranged with the elements in each group placed together in columns.

Periodic Law: The chemical and physical properties of the elements are periodic functions of the atomic number.

This observation is very surprising! To see this, consider an analogy. Imagine we looked for a pattern in the grades of students in a class by where they like to sit. We would not be surprised to find a pattern. Perhaps, for example, the most attentive students sit in a group near the front of the class and make the highest grades. However, we would be very surprised if we were to rank the students in order of decreasing grades and discover that every tenth student (1 st , 10 th , 21 st , 31 st ) in the list sat in the first row, every other tenth student (2 nd , 12 th , 22 nd , 32 nd ) sat in the second row, and so forth. That would be very unexpected and very hard to explain. But we would look for a reason for the pattern. In a similar way, we have seen a surprising pattern in the behavior of the elements with atomic number, and we must look for a reason for that pattern.

Observation 2: ionization energies of the atom

We are now ready to use Coulomb’s Law, as discussed in the Foundation, to understand the attraction of the electrons flying about the nucleus to the positive charge of the nucleus. Recall that the attraction of two charges together depends on the sizes of the charges and the distance between them. The size of the charge on an electron is often called –e . In the case of an atom with atomic number Z , there are Z protons so the nuclear charge is +Ze . The attraction of an electron at distance r away from this nucleus is given by the potential energy in Coulomb’s Law:

V ( r ) = ( + Ze ) ( e ) r size 12{V \( r \) = { { left (+ ital "Ze" \) \( - e right )} over {r} } } {}

This means that an electron close to the nucleus would be more strongly attracted to the nucleus, because its potential energy is much more negative. A large negative potential energy means that we would have to add a lot of energy to the electron to remove it from the atom so that r could become large. This also means that an electron in an atom with a large atomic number, Z, would be more strongly attracted to its nucleus than an electron in another atom with a smaller atomic number.

We can actually observe the attractions of the electrons to the nucleus by measuring the amount of energy required to remove the electron from the atom. This energy is called the “ionization energy” of the atom because it is the energy required to take a neutral atom and turn it into a charged ion:

A (g) → A + (g) + e - (g)

In this chemical process, A is an atom, the (g) means that this atom is in the gas phase, and A + (g) is the same atom with one electron removed, leaving behind a positive charge. We call A + an ion. Think about how the ionization energy is related to the potential energy in Coulomb’s Law. For an electron to be removed from the atom, r must become very large so that the potential energy becomes essentially zero. If an electron began with a negative potential energy V(r) , we would have added at least this must energy to bring the potential energy up to zero. Therefore, a large negative V(r) would require a large ionization energy. We often call the ionization energy, IE, and it is typically measured in kiloJoules (kJ) per mole of atoms. At this point, we don’t need to worry about how this experiment is actually done.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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