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V = ( q 1 ) ( q 2 ) r size 12{V= { { \( q rSub { size 8{1} } \) \( q rSub { size 8{2} } \) } over {r} } } {}

This is Coulomb’s Law. We will very rarely do any calculations with this equation. Instead, we will apply it to understand when V is expected to be a large number or a small number, positive or negative. When V is a large negative number, the potential energy is very low and the two charges are strongly attracted to one another. To see this, think about what must happen to pull two charges apart which have a very negative potential energy. If we want r to become very large, then in Coulomb’s Law, we want V to get close to zero. If V is a large negative number, then we have to add a lot of energy to bring V up to zero. Therefore, a large negative value of V means that the two particles are strongly attracted to each other since it requires a lot of work to pull them apart.

In the equation above, V will be a large negative number when several things are true: the charges must have opposite signs, so that multiplying them together gives a negative number. All this means is that opposite charges attract. The larger the charges, the stronger the attraction. In addition, r must not be large and preferably will be fairly small. These simple conclusions must be kept in mind. Two particles with large opposite charges close to one another must be strongly attracted to one another. The smaller the charges or the larger the distance, the weaker the attraction.

In many ways, it is fair to say that Coulomb’s Law forms the foundation of everything we know about the chemistry of atoms and molecules. Therefore, it is very important to understand the conclusions of the previous paragraph. Without them, we can make no further progress in our understanding of atoms.

Observation 1: periodic properties of the elements

We now have much more information about the differences between the atoms of different elements. We know how many electrons and protons each atom contains, and we know where these charged particles are in the atom, with the protons in a very small nucleus and the electrons occupying the vast empty space around the nucleus. It seems that we should be able to account for the chemical properties of these atoms by using this information. However, we rapidly run into a surprising result.

Remember that the atomic number tells us how many protons and electrons an atom contains. We observe that atoms with very similar atomic numbers often have very different chemical properties. For example, carbon’s atomic number is 6 and nitrogen’s is 7, so they have very similar numbers of protons and electrons. But as we have seen, elemental carbon is a solid and elemental nitrogen is a gas. Oxygen’s atomic number is 8, just one greater than nitrogen, but oxygen reacts with most other elements, sometimes violently, whereas nitrogen is so unreactive that it is often used to provide an “inert” atmosphere to store chemicals.

Also surprisingly, elements with very different atomic numbers can have quite similar chemical properties. The elements fluorine and chlorine are both gases and both exist as diatomic molecules in nature, F 2 and Cl 2 . Both are highly reactive and will combine with hydrogen to form acids, HCl and HF. They both combine with metals like sodium and magnesium to form solid salts with similar molecular formulas, like NaF and NaCl. But their atomic numbers are quite different: F’s atomic number is 9, and Cl’s is 17.

Questions & Answers

what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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Source:  OpenStax, Concept development studies in chemistry 2013. OpenStax CNX. Oct 07, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11579/1.1
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