# 0.3 Electron shell model of an atom  (Page 2/6)

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$V\mathrm{=}\frac{\left({q}_{1}\right)\left({q}_{2}\right)}{r}$

This is Coulomb’s Law. We will very rarely do any calculations with this equation. Instead, we will apply it to understand when V is expected to be a large number or a small number, positive or negative. When V is a large negative number, the potential energy is very low and the two charges are strongly attracted to one another. To see this, think about what must happen to pull two charges apart which have a very negative potential energy. If we want r to become very large, then in Coulomb’s Law, we want V to get close to zero. If V is a large negative number, then we have to add a lot of energy to bring V up to zero. Therefore, a large negative value of V means that the two particles are strongly attracted to each other since it requires a lot of work to pull them apart.

In the equation above, V will be a large negative number when several things are true: the charges must have opposite signs, so that multiplying them together gives a negative number. All this means is that opposite charges attract. The larger the charges, the stronger the attraction. In addition, r must not be large and preferably will be fairly small. These simple conclusions must be kept in mind. Two particles with large opposite charges close to one another must be strongly attracted to one another. The smaller the charges or the larger the distance, the weaker the attraction.

In many ways, it is fair to say that Coulomb’s Law forms the foundation of everything we know about the chemistry of atoms and molecules. Therefore, it is very important to understand the conclusions of the previous paragraph. Without them, we can make no further progress in our understanding of atoms.

## Observation 1: periodic properties of the elements

We now have much more information about the differences between the atoms of different elements. We know how many electrons and protons each atom contains, and we know where these charged particles are in the atom, with the protons in a very small nucleus and the electrons occupying the vast empty space around the nucleus. It seems that we should be able to account for the chemical properties of these atoms by using this information. However, we rapidly run into a surprising result.

Remember that the atomic number tells us how many protons and electrons an atom contains. We observe that atoms with very similar atomic numbers often have very different chemical properties. For example, carbon’s atomic number is 6 and nitrogen’s is 7, so they have very similar numbers of protons and electrons. But as we have seen, elemental carbon is a solid and elemental nitrogen is a gas. Oxygen’s atomic number is 8, just one greater than nitrogen, but oxygen reacts with most other elements, sometimes violently, whereas nitrogen is so unreactive that it is often used to provide an “inert” atmosphere to store chemicals.

Also surprisingly, elements with very different atomic numbers can have quite similar chemical properties. The elements fluorine and chlorine are both gases and both exist as diatomic molecules in nature, F 2 and Cl 2 . Both are highly reactive and will combine with hydrogen to form acids, HCl and HF. They both combine with metals like sodium and magnesium to form solid salts with similar molecular formulas, like NaF and NaCl. But their atomic numbers are quite different: F’s atomic number is 9, and Cl’s is 17.

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
China
Cied
types of nano material
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
Porter
many many of nanotubes
Porter
what is the k.e before it land
Yasmin
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
Cesar
I'm interested in nanotube
Uday
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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