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This module serves as the complementary teacher's guide for the Probability Topics chapter of the Elementary Statistics textbook/collection.

The best way to introduce the terms is through examples. You can introduce the terms experiment, outcome, sample space, event, probability, equally likely, conditional, mutually exclusive events, and independent events AND you can introduce the addition rule, the multiplication rule with the following example: In a box (you cannot see into it), there are are 4 red cards numbered 1, 2, 3, 4 and 9 green cards numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9. You randomly draw one card (experiment). Let R be the event the card is red. Let G be the event the card is green. Let E be the event the card has an even number on it.

    Event card example

  • List all possible outcomes (the sample space). Have students list the sample space in the form {R1, R2, R3, R4, G1, G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, G7, G8, G9}. Each outcome is equally likely. Plane outcome = 1 13 size 12{ { { size 8{1} } over { size 8{"13"} } } } {} .
  • Find P ( R ) size 12{P \( R \) } {} .
  • Find P ( G ) size 12{P \( G \) } {} . G is the complement of R. P ( G ) size 12{P \( G \) } {} + P ( R ) size 12{P \( R \) } {} = _______.
  • P ( size 12{P \( } {} red card given a that the card has an even number on it) = P ( R E ) size 12{P \( R \lline E \) } {} .This is a conditional. Pick the red card out of the even cards. There are 6 even cards.
  • Find P ( R size 12{P \( R} {} AND E ) size 12{E \) } {} . (Multiplication Rule: P ( R and E ) = P ( E R ) ( P ( R ) size 12{E \) =P \( E \lline R \) \( P \( R \) \) } {} )
  • P ( R size 12{P \( R} {} OR E ) size 12{E \) } {} . (Addition Rule: P ( R size 12{P \( R} {} OR E ) = P ( E ) + P ( R ) P ( E size 12{E \) =P \( E \) +P \( R \) - P \( E} {} AND R ) size 12{R \) } {} )
  • Are the events R size 12{R} {} and G size 12{G} {} mutually exclusive? Why or why not?
  • Are the events G size 12{G} {} and E size 12{E} {} independent? Why or why not?

(Optional Topic) A Venn diagram is a tool that helps to simplify probability problems. Introduce a Venn diagram using an example. Example: Suppose 40% of the students at ABC College belong to a club and 50% of the student body work part time. Five percent of the student body works part time and belongs to a club.

Have the students work in groups to draw an appropriate Venn diagram after you have shown them what a Venn diagram basically looks like. The diagram should consist of a rectangle with two overlapping circles. One rectangle represents the students who belong to a club (40%) and the other circle represents those students who work part time (50%). The overlapping part are those students who belong to a club and who work part time (5%).

    Find the following:

  • P(student works part time but does not belong to a club)
  • P(student belongs to a club given that the student works part time)
  • P(student does not belong to a club)
  • P(works part time given that the student belongs to a club)
  • P(student belongs to a club or the student works part time)
  • C

    student belongs to a club
  • Pt

    student works part time

    Find the following:

  • P(a child is 9 - 11 years old)
  • P(a child prefers regular soccer camp)
  • P(a child is 9 - 11 years old and prefers regular soccer camp)
  • P(a child is 9 - 11 years old or prefers regular soccer camp)
  • P(a child is over 14 given that the child prefers micro soccer camp)
  • P(a child prefers micro soccer camp given that the child is over 14)

Tree diagrams (optional topic)

A tree is another probability tool. Many probability problems are simplified by a tree diagram. To exemplify this, suppose you want to draw two cards, one at a time, without replacement from the box of 4 red cards and 9 green cards.

There are (13)(12) = 156 Possible Outcomes. (ex. R1R1, R1R2, R1G3, G3G4, etc.)

    Find the following:

  • P(RR)
  • P(RG or GR)
  • P(at most one G in two draws)
  • P(G on the 2nd draw|R on the 1st draw) . The size of the sample space has been reduced to 12 + 36 = 481 .
  • P(no R on the 1st draw)

Introduce contingency tables as another tool to calculate probabilities. Let's suppose an owner of a soccer camp for children keeps information concerning the type of soccer camp the children prefer and their ages. The data is for 572 children.

Type of Soccer Camp Preference Under 6 6-8 9-11 12-14 Over 14 Row Total
Micro 42 76 46 25 10 199
Regular 8 68 92 105 100 373
Column Total 50 144 138 130 110 572

Assign practice

Assign Practice 1 and Practice 2 in class. Have students work in groups.

Assign lab

The Probability Lab is an excellent way to cement many of the ideas of probability. The lab is a group effort (3 - 4 students per group).

Assign homework

Assign Homework . Suggested problems: 1 - 15 odds, 19, 20, 21, 23, 27, 28 - 30.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Collaborative statistics teacher's guide. OpenStax CNX. Oct 01, 2008 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10547/1.5
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