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Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3) Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation 1 .664 **
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1182 1180
Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation .664 ** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1180 1180
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).
[In this matrix, it appears that four unique correlations are present, one per cell. In fact, only one unique correlation, or r , is present in this four cell matrix.]

Step six:

  • Check For Effect Size
  • 1. Go to the correlation box
  • 2. Find Pearson’s Correlation Row or Spearman rho’s and follow it to the variable column.
  • 3. Your effect size will be located in the cell where the above intersect.
  • 4. The effect size is calculated as:

Cohen's criteria for correlations (1998)

  • .1 = small (range from .1 to .29)
  • .3 = moderate (range from .3 to .49)
  • .5 = large (range from .5 to 1.0)
Correlations cannot be greater than 1.00, therefore a 0 should not be placed in front of the decimal.

Step seven:

  • Check the Level of Variance the Variables Have in Common
  • 1. Square the Pearson Correlation Value or Spearman rho value to find the variance
  • 2. In this example, the Verbal IQ and the Performance IQ share 44.09% of the variance in common (see correlation value of .664).
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3) Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Verbal IQ (Wechsler Verbal Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation 1 .664 **
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1182 1180
Performance IQ (Wechsler Performance Intelligence 3)
Pearson Correlation .664 ** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000
N 1180 1180
** Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Step eight:

  • Write the Numerical Sentence
  • 1. r ( n ) sp = sp correlation coefficient, sp p sp < sp .001 (or Bonferroni-adjusted alpha significance error rate).
  • 2. Using this example: r (1180) = .66, p <.001
[sp means to insert a space.] Remember that all mathematical symbols are placed in italics.

Step nine:

  • Narrative and Interpretation
  • 1. r value
  • 2. sample size or n
  • 3. p value
  • 4. r 2 value
  • 5. r (1180) = .66, p <.001, 44.09% of variance accounted for.
  • 6. Note that the r value itself is the effect size.

Writing up your statistics

So, how do you "write up" your Research Questions and your Results? Schuler W. Huck (2000) in his seminal book entitled, Reading Statistics and Research, points to the importance of your audience understanding and making sense of your research in written form. Huck further states:

This book is designed to help people decipher what researchers are trying to communicate in the written or oral summaries of their investigations. Here, the goal is simply to distill meaning from the words, symbols, tables, and figures included in the research report. To be competent in this arena, one must not only be able to decipher what's presented but also to "fill in the holes"; this is the case because researchers typically assume that those receiving the research report are familiar with unmentioned details of the research process and statistical treatment of data.

Writing up your correlations

Researchers and Professors John Slate and Ana Rojas-LeBouef understand this critical issue, so often neglected or not addressed by other authors and researchers. They point to the importance of doctoral students "writing up their statistics" in a way that others can understand your reporting and as importantly, interpret the meaning of your significant findings and implications for the preparation and practice of educational leadership. Slate and LeBouef provide you with a model for "writing up your Parametric and Non-Parametric Correlations statistics."

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Parametric Correlation Statistics

Click here to view: Writing Up Your Nonparamteric Correlation Statistics


  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.) . Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erbaum
  • Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition. Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=326
  • Kurtosis. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • Onwuegbuzie, A. J.,&Daniel, L. G. (2002). Uses and misuses of the correlation coefficient. Research in the Schools, 9 (1) , 73-90.
  • Skewness. (n.d.) Retrieved from (External Link)&term_id=356
  • Skewness. (n.d.). Definition of normality . Retrieved from (External Link)
  • StatSoft, Inc. (2011). Electronic statistics textbook. Tulsa, OK: StatSoft. WEB: (External Link)

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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