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Calculating correlations: parametric and nonparametric

In this set of steps, readers will calculate either a parametric or a nonparametric statistical analysis, depending on whether the data reflect a normal distribution. A parametric statistical procedure requires that its data be reflective of a normal curve whereas no such assumption is made in the use of a nonparametric procedure. Of the two types of statistical analyses, the parametric procedure is the more powerful one in ascertaining whether or not a statistically significant relationship, in this case, exists. As such, parametric procedures are preferred over nonparametric procedures. When data are not normally distributed, however, parametric analyses may provide misleading and inaccurate results. Accordingly, nonparametric analyses should be used in cases where data are not reflective of a normal curve. In this set of steps, readers are provided with information on how to make the determination of normally or nonnormally distributed data. For detailed information regarding the assumptions underlying parametric and nonparametric procedures, readers are referred to the Hyperstats Online Statistics Textbook at (External Link) or to the Electronic Statistics Textbook (2011) at (External Link)

Research questions for which correlations are appropriate involve asking for relationships between or among variables. The research question, “What is the relationship between study skills and grades for high school students?” could be answered through use of a correlation.

Step one:

  • Perform ScatterPlots
  • √ Graphs
  • √ Legacy Dialogs
  • √ Scatter/Dot
  • √ The Simple Scatter icon should be highlighted

  • √ Define
  • √ Drag one of the two variables of interest to the first box (Y axis) on the right hand side and the other variable of interest to the second box (X axis) on the right hand side. It does not matter which variable goes in the X or Y axis because your scatterplot results will be the same.
  • Once you have a variable in each of the two boxes, click on the OK tab on the bottom left hand corner of the screen.

  • √ Look at the scatterplots to see whether a linear relationship is present.
  • In the screenshot below, the relationship is very clearly linear.

Step two:

  • Calculate Descriptive Statistics on Variables
  • √ Analyze
  • * Descriptive Statistics
  • * Frequencies
  • * Click on the variables for which you want descriptive statistics (your dependent variables)
  • * You may click on each variable separately or highlight several of them
  • * * Once you have a variable in the left hand cell highlighted, click on the arrow in the middle to send the variable to the empty cell titled Variable(s)

  • √ Statistics
  • * Click on as many of the options you would like to see results
  • * At the minimum, click on: M , SD , Skewness, and Kurtosis

  • * Continue
  • * Charts (these are calculated only if you wish to have visual depictions of skewness and of kurtosis-they are not required)
  • * Histograms (not required, optional) with Normal Curve

  • * Continue
  • * OK

Step three:

Check for Skewness and Kurtosis values falling within/without the parameters of normality (-3 to +3)

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Calculating basic statistical procedures in spss: a self-help and practical guide to preparing theses, dissertations, and manuscripts. OpenStax CNX. Apr 28, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11292/1.6
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