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Literature review

The idea that there may be people who are more attuned to spirituality can be found in the work of Abraham Maslow. Maslow described the hierarchy of needs that humans have (Lowry, 1973). He discussed higher and lower needs. The needs range from simple life sustaining needs to the need for humans to be respected. At the top of his triangle, Maslow described the self-actualized person (Maslow, 1970). People at this level still need the lower levels to sustain them, but they are less dependent on them.

Maslow (1970) described self-actualized people as psychologically healthy. They are not afraid to make mistakes but rather choose to learn from them. They tend to jump right in to their work and attempt to do their best. They are accepting of self, others, and their surroundings. They are humans in the fullest sense of the word; comfortable with themselves and honest (Lowry, 1973). Self-actualized people are spontaneous, both outwardly and inwardly. They can see reality easily, denoting a great feeling of experiencing the present ("Self-actualization," n.d.).

A key in Maslow’s description of self-actualized people is the detachment from things. This detachment helps one to concentrates and to act without fear of personal loss; a trait that a leader must have. While these people are focused on the ends, they do not lose sight of the importance and value of the means. They, in fact, see the means as ends in themselves as they experience them, thus seeing their deeper significance. This approaches what Maslow calls a mystic experience. The everyday moments produce emotions, feelings of wonder and awe, and appreciation of their meaning. Maslow says that centuries ago such people would have been called “Godly.”

Here Maslow is setting the stage for a non-religious spirituality. Self-actualized people are spiritual people. They look for and find meaning in events as did the biblical people. They understand values and can easily apply values to life situations with little difficulty (Lowry, 1973; Maslow, 1970).

Spirituality in leadership is being discussed in different disciplines. Sergiovanni (1992) looked at the spirituality in educational venues. He said that leaders build communities of learners and cultivate the leadership potential of followers. He stated that beliefs and values inform the theories and reflections, which, in turn, affect the decisions and actions of leaders. Leaders’ actions ultimately are derived from leaders’ interior values and visions.

Sergiovanni (1992) makes a point about authenticity. Leaders are the same person at home and at work. Leaders must be in touch with basic values and base decisions and actions on those values. Leaders who are authentic people are more effective in leading communities of followers to see that they are interconnected with each other. Being led by the meaning of the work, the followers will be led by intrinsic values rather than by rewards.

Sergiovanni (1992) noted that an important aspect of leadership is being a servant. True leaders put their own interests behind those of others. Only secure leaders can give power to others. They do not put their position ahead of the people (Maxwell, 1999). The idea of servant leadership is missing from most theories of leadership (Sergiovanni, 1992). A servant leader may appear weak. It takes a secure leader to serve others.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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