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In summary, there are three themes that are seen in the literature in defining spirituality. First, spirituality is an attempt to find meaning in one’s life. Secondly, one is driven to seek this meaning outside of selfish and personal desires. Spiritual people perform their actions without regard to personal gain or loss. Thirdly, there are practices that can help people develop their spiritual or interior lives. These practices assist with pursuing the first and second themes. Spiritual Leadership is defined as looking out for the welfare of others in such a way that a task is completed and the group, however large or small, is unified throughout the process. Leadership is a motivation to change (Fry, 2003). Kouzes and Pozner (1987) write that “leadership is the art of mobilizing others to want to struggle for shared aspirations.” (p. 30). The leader is both an organizer and a parent figure. The idea of shared aspirations brings a sense of community into the definition.


Integrity is the correlation between the interior values of a person and the actions and decisions of the same person. Integrity includes the ability to disregard personal desires and appetites when they conflict with well thought out and internalized values. Integrity will often be tested and strained.


Community is used on several levels. It means the connection shared by the members of a group. It can reach beyond the group. Community can stand for the connection some feel they have with the natural world and the universe. It indicates the place people feel they have in the world. It is often the basis for meaning or purpose. Other words for community are membership and connectedness.


Meaning is used to indicate the value of the work. It directly affects motivation. The more meaningful the work the harder people will work to attain completion. Meaning is associated with purpose and calling.


Ethics in educational leadership is multidimensional, however in the context of spiritual leadership the focus is thought of in two different dimensions; the ethics of care and the ethics of justice (Starratt, 2004).

Ethics of care

The ethics of care is also referred to as the ethics of common good. In this context, ethics for leaders are bridging the political, communal and economic norms into an action that is good for all (Knapp, 2007). No one person, policy, or organization is given preferential treatment, but all are given equal weight in making decisions. In education, the administrator must take into account the effects of the decision on the student, school and division, not only the policies involved, but the effects on the culture and school climate. What is good for all is, at times, in direct conflict with what is good for the individual. The leader must overlook any personal bias and make a decision that takes into account the care of the entire division.

Ethics of justice

Ethics of justice is the actions of a leader that are considered right and fair. These actions are not only ensuring that the law and school board policies are followed but questioning the validity of the laws and policies when they are in conflict with the norms, customs and morals of the organization in which they are applied. Justice in these terms goes beyond the courts and school board and force the leader to apply the necessary fair treatment to all, regardless of the law or policy. The idea of challenging the agreed upon social norms that laws and policies may seem idealistic, however, if leaders are to act in an ethical manner, they must challenge these norms. The ethics of justice forces leaders to always question the validity of policies in light of what is fair given the morals and norms of the organization they lead (Starratt, 2004).

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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