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Conceptual definitions


A key issue in this study is the definition of spirituality . It is common to link spirituality with religion. Indeed it is mostly used in that context. From the days of Biblical Abraham, to the writings of Saint Paul, up to the Protestant Reformation spirituality was closely connected with religion. The reformers thought that religion had become too political and sought to free the practice of religion from the ties to earthly institutions. The reformers wanted believers to concentrate on the interior world of faith rather than the exterior world of religious practices. This led, indirectly and unintentionally, to a separation of spirituality from religion (Jamison, 2006). Williams James, in 1902, proposed separating religion from spirituality in order to study personal spirituality (Jamison, 2006).

While many writers discuss religious spiritually, there are writers who explore the elements of spirituality that can be generalized to a secular usage. Often writers associate spirituality with a search for meaning (Carroll, 2001). In her seven part definition of spirituality, Tisdell (2003) stated that in its deepest form spirituality is about meaning-making. Meaning, or purpose, becomes tightly woven into one’s existence and influences other aspects of life (Sawatzky, Ratner,&Chiu, 2005).

In examining the interior world, one is looking both beyond the outside physical world that can be perceived by the senses and within the self that has been formed and influenced by the same senses. Thus one transcends the physical, psychological, or social facets of life (Sawatzky, et al., 2005).

Spirituality is not a passive, inert characteristic. It makes life more than bodily functions and chemical processes (Porter, 1995). The Latin etymology of the word spirituality is life or vigor. Spirituality is not an academic study. It is studied with the purpose of experiencing it. Spirituality is a way of life and not a series of mystical, isolated experiences (Spohn, 1997). How can a person experience spirituality? Are there practices that help a person encounter life’s deepest meanings? The practices or activities are a part of spiritual development. Spiritual development is discovering personal genuineness; finding meaning, purpose, and direction in one’s life; “continually transcending one’s current locus of centricity”; and “developing a greater connectedness to self and others through relationships and union with community” (Estanek, 2006, p. 273).

According to Rose (2001), spirituality involves these three elements: (1) some sort of experience of matters of essential concern dealing with meaning and reason, (2) some exertion in spiritual development, and (3) a life entwined with selfless activities (Rose, 2001). In a discussion with Father Thomas Berry (personal communication, December 22, 2008), a priest in the Congregation of the Passion of Jesus Christ, the term spirituality was described as an effort to identify the world of meaning. He said that a spiritual leader acts for the purpose of the work itself and not for personal gain or benefit

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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