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This is a brief discussion of spiritual and ethical leadership. There are forces that affect the behaviors of leaders that are not always visible or evident to the leaders themselves. It is useful to analyze these forces in order to understand what influences leaders. Both spiritual and ethical dimensions come into play in the work of leaders. The spiritual dimensions work to create a culture of meaning and community in the organization. The ethical dimension serves to create the integrity within the organization which is essential to sustaining the community.

This Instructional Module was written and published by Kevin Bezy and Joseph Makolandra, doctoral students from Virginia Tech, and is a chapter in a larger collection entitled, 21st Century Theories of Educational Administration. This Collection is a series of modules written by Virginia Tech Doctoral students in Summer 2009. Professors, Practitioners, and Graduate Students of Educational Administration are granted full rights to use for educational purposes.

The National Council of Professors of Educational Administration has reviewed and accepted this Instructional Module for inclusion in the International Journal of Educational Leadership Preparation (IJELP) , the official publication of the NCPEA Connexions Project and is catalogued under Instructional Modules and Education Material. In addition, the instructional module has been submitted to the U.S. Department of Education’s Educational Resource Information Center (ERIC).


The unexamined life is not worth living. In the translation of Plato’s Apology, Socrates said this before his execution for corruption of the youth of Athens. He was offered freedom as an exile, but he chose to die because he claimed that one must look deeply into life to look for meaning (Hamilton&Cairns, 1961). Why did Plato write this? What did he mean? Are there implications for leadership? These are major questions that form the foundation of spirituality in leadership.

One can look to leaders of the past who performed leadership tasks with what seemed to be a deeper purpose. These leaders took on the leadership roles motivated by more than pay or personal glory. Often it would have been easier to have declined the leadership role in order to avoid personal loss or misfortune. This theme occurs early in literature in the epic stories of ancient people. Throughout history we also find people who embraced leadership at great personal loss. While these people may seem heroic and bigger than life because of their fame and the continuous retelling of their stories, they are ordinary people who were driven by forces that can drive any one of us.

Ethical leadership does not always have the legendary status of the ancient Greeks and Romans or even American icons like George Washington or Abraham Lincoln. All children learn about George Washington’s story of telling the truth of chopping down the cherry tree. However, we do not have to look too far back in our nation’s history to discover leadership figures that have questionable ethics; the Watergate scandal with President Richard Nixon, the Iran-Contra scandal with Colonel Oliver North, and the Monica Lewinski and President Clinton. These and other scandals have brought to light the need for those in power to lead in an ethical manner. Leaders are expected to reflect and uphold the morals, norms and principals of conduct that are universal to the population they are leading. They must assess and reflect upon all conditions and possible outcomes prior to making a decision.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, 21st century theories of education administration. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10727/1.1
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