# 0.3 Beer's law and data analysis

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## Objectives

• Learn or review typical data analysis procedures–plotting data with excel, performing linear regression analysis, etc.
• Explore the concepts and applications of spectrophotometry

• Pre-lab (10%)
• Lab Report Form–including plot (80%)
• TA points + Pop Quiz (10%)

## Before coming to lab…

• Print out the lab instructions and report form.
• Complete the pre-lab, due at the beginning of the lab

## Introduction

When describing chemical compounds, scientists rely on their chemical and physical properties. In lab, we might observe that a metal reacts violently with water, that a reactant is liquid at room temperature, or that a powder is yellow. Chemical and physical properties can be used qualitatively to identify a material or to predict its behavior, or quantitatively to determine how much of that material is present in a solution. In this lab, we will develop a scheme to determine the concentration of copper sulfate in aqueous solution using spectrophotometry.

To start, we will consider light and its interaction with matter. Chemicals exhibit a diverse range of colors, especially when they contain transition metal ions. In order for a compound to have color, it must absorb visible light. Visible light consists of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from approximately 400 nm to 700 nm, a small section of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum shown below.

Light is characterized by its frequency ( $\nu$ ), the number of times the crest of the wave passes some point in space per second, or by its wavelength ( $\lambda$ ), the distance between two successive crests. These two quantities are related by the speed of light, a fundamental constant: $\text{λν}=c=3×{\text{10}}^{8}\text{m/s}$ . Planck related the frequency of light to its energy (E) according to $E=\text{hν}$ , where h is Planck's constant, $h=6\text{.}\text{626}×{\text{10}}^{-\text{34}}\text{J/s}$ .

A compound will absorb light when the radiation posesses the energy needed to move an electron from its lowest energy (ground) state to some excited state. The particular energies of radiation that a substance absorbs dictate the colors that it exhibits. Conversely the color of a compound can help us to determine its electronic configuration.

White light contains all wavelengths in this visible region. When a transparent sample (like most aqueous solutions) absorbs visible light, the color we perceive is the sum of the remaining colors that are transmitted by the object and strike our eyes.If an object absorbs all wavelengths of visible light, none reaches our eyes, and it appears black. If it absorbs no visible light, it will look white or colorless. If it absorbs all but orange, the material will appear orange. We also perceive an orange color when visible light of all colors except blue strikes our eyes. Orange and blue are complementary colors; the removal of blue from white light makes the light look orange, and vice versa. Thus, an object has a particular color for one of two reasons: It transmits light of only that color or it absorbs light of the complementary color.

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
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