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The Water Cycle
The Water Cycle. Figure illustrates the water cycle on, above, and below the Earth's surface. Source: U.S. Department of the Interior and U.S. Geological Survey, The Water Cycle .

Human interactions with the water cycle

Freshwater supply is one of the most important provisioning ecosystem services on which human well-being depends. By 2000, the rate of our water extraction from rivers and aquifers had risen to almost 4000 cubic kilometers per year. The greatest use of this water is for irrigation in agriculture, but significant quantities of water are also extracted for public and municipal use, as well as industrial applications and power generation. Other major human interventions in the water cycle involve changes in land cover and infrastructure development of river networks. As we have deforested areas for wood supply and agricultural development we have reduced the amount of vegetation, which naturally acts to trap precipitation as it falls and slow the rate of infiltration into the ground. As a consequence, surface runoff has increased. This, in turn, means flood peaks are greater and erosion is increased. Erosion lowers soil quality and deposits sediment in river channels, where it can block navigation and harm aquatic plants and animals. Where agricultural land is also drained these effects can be magnified. Urbanization also accelerates streamflow by preventing precipitation from filtering into the soil and shunting it into drainage systems. Additional physical infrastructure has been added to river networks with the aim of altering the volume, timing, and direction of water flows for human benefit. This is achieved with reservoirs, weirs, and diversion channels. For example, so much water is removed or redirected from the Colorado River in the western United States that, despite its considerable size, in some years it is dry before reaching the sea in Mexico. We also exploit waterways through their use for navigation, recreation, hydroelectricity generation and waste disposal. These activities, especially waste disposal, do not necessarily involve removal of water, but do have impacts on water quality and water flow that have negative consequences for the physical and biological properties of aquatic ecosystems.

The water cycle is key to the ecosystem service of climate regulation as well as being an essential supporting service that impacts the function of all ecosystems. Consider the widespread impacts on diverse natural and human systems when major droughts or floods occur. Consequently, human disruptions of the natural water cycle have many undesirable effects and challenge sustainable development. There are two major concerns. First, the need to balance rising human demand with the need to make our water use sustainable by reversing ecosystem damage from excess removal and pollution of water. Traditionally, considerable emphasis has been on finding and accessing more supply, but the negative environmental impacts of this approach are now appreciated, and improving the efficiency of water use is now a major goal. Second, there is a need for a safe water supply in many parts of the world, which depends on reducing water pollution and improving water treatment facilities.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Bio 351 university of texas. OpenStax CNX. Dec 31, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11943/1.1
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