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Although environmental laws are generally considered a 20th century phenomenon, attempts have been made to legislate environmental controls throughout history. In 2,700 B.C., the middle-eastern civilization in Ur passed laws protecting the few remaining forests in the region.....

Environmental laws&Regulations

Introduction

Although environmental laws are generally considered a 20th century phenomenon, attempts have been made to legislate environmental controls throughout history. In 2,700 B.C., the middle-eastern civilization in Ur passed laws protecting the few remaining forests in the region. In 80 A.D., the Roman Senate passed a law to protect water stored for dry periods so it could be used for street and sewer cleaning. During American colonial times, Benjamin Franklin argued for "public rights" laws to protect the citizens of Philadelphia against industrial pollution produced by animal hide tanners.

Significant environmental action began at the beginning of the 20th century. In 1906, Congress passed the “Antiquities Act,” which authorizes the president to protect areas of federal lands as national monuments. A few years later, Alice Hamilton pushed for government regulations concerning toxic industrial chemicals. She fought, unsuccessfully, to ban the use of lead in gasoline. She also supported the legal actions taken by women who were dying of cancer from their exposure to the radium then used in glow-in-the-dark watch dials. During the early 1960’s, biologist Rachel Carson pointed out the need to regulate pesticides such as DDT to protect the health of wildlife and humans.

With the establishment of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970, environmental law became a field substantial enough to occupy lawyers on a full-time basis. Since then, federal and state governments have passed numerous laws and created a vast network of complicated rules and regulations regarding environmental issues. Moreover, international organizations and agencies including the United Nations , the World Bank , and the World Trade Organization have also contributed environmental rules and regulations.

Because of the legal and technical complexities of the subjects covered by environmental laws, persons dealing with such laws must be knowledgeable in the areas of law, science and public policy. Environmental laws today encompass a wide range of subjects such as air and water quality, hazardous wastes and biodiversity. The purpose of these environmental laws is to prevent, minimize, remedy and punish actions that threaten or damage the environment and those that live in it. However, some people believe that these laws unreasonably limit the freedom of people, organizations, corporations and government agencies by placing controls on their actions.

Federal laws

Early attempts by Congress to enact laws affecting the environment included the Antiquities Act in 1906, the National Park Service Act in 1916, the Federal Insecticide , Fungicide and Rodenticide Act in 1947 and the Water Pollution Control Act in 1956. The Wilderness Act of 1964, protected large areas of pristine federal lands from development and ushered in the new age of environmental activism that began in the 1960’s. However, it was the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) enacted in 1969 and the formation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1970 that started environmental legislation in earnest. The main objective of these two federal enactments was to assure that the environment would be protected from both public and private actions that failed to take into account the costs of damage inflicted on the environment.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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