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An example of exploitation by a foreign corporation occurred in Bhopal, India. Because of the availability of cheap labor and lax environmental laws, it was economically advantageous to locate a Union Carbide chemical plant there. One day in 1984, a cloud of poisonous methyl isocyanate was accidentally released from the plant, killing most of the unprotected people in the adjacent areas. Houses near the plant were mostly of poor families and streets near the plant were populated with many homeless men, women and children. Several thousand people were killed in this disaster. Even after the settlement of lawsuits stemming from the accident, the injured and relatives of the dead received little compensation. Many of the homeless were completely ignored.

In its rush toward development, Bangladesh has established a program of intense use of land, forest, fisheries and water resources. This has led to severe environmental degradation: loss of soil fertility, excessive extraction of groundwater for irrigation, and increased air and water pollution. The lowering of water tables throughout the land, in particular, has led to pollution of ground water by arsenic. As many as 40 million people in Bangladesh may be exposed to toxic levels of arsenic present in many of the nation’s six million private and public wells. The country does not have the economic resources for adequate testing of wells to determine which are poisoned and which are safe. Because of this, millions may die of cancer or “arsenicosis.”

Some idealistic people believe that a definition of a developed country must include factors such as conservation and quality of life and that a truly developed country would not exploit a large fraction of the world's resources. Accordingly, characteristics of such a developed country might include: economic prosperity of all people, regardless of gender or age, sustainable use of resources and more controlled use of technology to ensure a high quality of life for all people. An economically and technologically developed country such as the United States would not qualify as being a truly developed country by these criteria.

Environmental justice

Whenever a community is faced with the potential of an environmentally undesirable facility, such as the placement of a hazardous waste dump in its midst, the usual response from residents is: "Not in my back yard!" Such a response is known as the NIMBY principle. Such reactions are usually reactions to visions of previous environmental irresponsibility: uncontrolled dumping of noxious industrial wastes and rusty steel drums oozing hazardous chemicals into the environment. Such occurrences were all too real in the past and some are still taking place. It is now possible -- and much more common -- to build environmentally sound, state-of-the-art disposal facilities. However, the NIMBY principle usually prevents the construction of such new facilities. Instead, hazardous waste facilities tend to be built upon pre-existing, already contaminated sites, even though the geology of such locations may be less favorable for containment than potential new sites.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ap environmental science. OpenStax CNX. Sep 25, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10548/1.2
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