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This appendix is broken into several tables.

  • [link] , Important Constants
  • [link] , Submicroscopic Masses
  • [link] , Solar System Data
  • [link] , Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols
  • [link] , The Greek Alphabet
  • [link] , SI units
  • [link] , Selected British Units
  • [link] , Other Units
  • [link] , Useful Formulae
Important constants Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
c size 12{c} {} Speed of light in vacuum 2 . 99792458 × 10 8 m / s size 12{2 "." "99792458" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {} 3 . 00 × 10 8 m / s size 12{3 "." "00" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } ` {m} slash {s} } {}
G size 12{G} {} Gravitational constant 6 . 67408 ( 31 ) × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67384" \( "80" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 6 . 67 × 10 11 N m 2 / kg 2 size 12{6 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "11"} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {"kg" rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
N A size 12{N rSub { size 8{A} } } {} Avogadro’s number 6 . 02214129 ( 27 ) × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02214129" \( "27" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {} 6 . 02 × 10 23 size 12{6 "." "02" times "10" rSup { size 8{"23"} } } {}
k size 12{k} {} Boltzmann’s constant 1 . 3806488 ( 13 ) × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "3806488" \( "13" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {} 1 . 38 × 10 23 J / K size 12{1 "." "38" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "23"} } ` {J} slash {K} } {}
R size 12{R} {} Gas constant 8 . 3144621 ( 75 ) J / mol K size 12{8 "." "3144621" \( "75" \) ` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K} } {} 8 . 31 J / mol K = 1 . 99 cal / mol K = 0 . 0821 atm L / mol K size 12{8 "." "31"` {J} slash {"mol" cdot K=1 "." "99"` {"cal"} slash {"mol" cdot K=0 "." "0821"` {"atm" cdot L} slash {"mol" cdot K} } } } {}
σ size 12{σ} {} Stefan-Boltzmann constant 5 . 670373 ( 21 ) × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "670373" \( "21" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {} 5 . 67 × 10 8 W / m 2 K size 12{5 "." "67" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 8} } ` {W} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } cdot K} } {}
k size 12{k} {} Coulomb force constant 8 . 987551788 . . . × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{8 "." "987551788" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8.99 × 10 9 N m 2 / C 2 size 12{9 times "10" rSup { size 8{9} } ` {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {C rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
q e size 12{q rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Charge on electron 1 . 602176565 ( 35 ) × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "602176565" \( "35" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {} 1 . 60 × 10 19 C size 12{ - 1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } `C} {}
ε 0 size 12{ε rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permittivity of free space 8 . 854187817 . . . × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "854187817" "." "." "." `` times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} 8 . 85 × 10 12 C 2 / N m 2 size 12{8 "." "85" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } ` {C rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {N cdot m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {}
μ 0 size 12{μ rSub { size 8{0} } } {} Permeability of free space × 10 7 T m / A size 12{4π times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 7} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {} 1 . 26 × 10 6 T m / A size 12{1 "." "26" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } ` {T cdot m} slash {A} } {}
h size 12{h} {} Planck’s constant 6 . 62606957 ( 29 ) × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "62606957" \( "29" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {} 6 . 63 × 10 34 J s size 12{6 "." "63" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "34"} } `J cdot s} {}
Submicroscopic masses Stated values are according to the National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty, www.physics.nist.gov/cuu (accessed May 18, 2012). Values in parentheses are the uncertainties in the last digits. Numbers without uncertainties are exact as defined.
Symbol Meaning Best Value Approximate Value
m e size 12{m rSub { size 8{e} } } {} Electron mass 9 . 10938291 ( 40 ) × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "10938291" \( "40" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {} 9 . 11 × 10 31 kg size 12{9 "." "11" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "31"} } `"kg"} {}
m p size 12{m rSub { size 8{p} } } {} Proton mass 1 . 672621777 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "672621777" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6726 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6726" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
m n size 12{m rSub { size 8{n} } } {} Neutron mass 1 . 674927351 ( 74 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "674927351" \( "74" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6749 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6749" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
u size 12{u} {} Atomic mass unit 1 . 660538921 ( 73 ) × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "660538921" \( "73" \) times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {} 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } `"kg"} {}
Solar system data
Sun mass 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 96 × 10 8 m size 12{6 "." "96" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } `m} {}
Earth-sun distance (average) 1 . 496 × 10 11 m size 12{1 "." "496" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
Earth mass 5 . 9736 × 10 24 kg size 12{5 "." "9736" times "10" rSup { size 8{"24"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 6 . 376 × 10 6 m size 12{6 "." "376" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {} {}
orbital period 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s "} {}
Moon mass 7 . 35 × 10 22 kg size 12{7 "." "35" times "10" rSup { size 8{"22"} } `"kg"} {}
average radius 1 . 74 × 10 6 m size 12{1 "." "74" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } `m} {}
orbital period (average) 2 . 36 × 10 6 s size 12{2 "." "36" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " s"} {}
Earth-moon distance (average) 3 . 84 × 10 8 m size 12{3 "." "84" times "10" rSup { size 8{8} } " m"} {}
Metric prefixes for powers of ten and their symbols
Prefix Symbol Value Prefix Symbol Value
tera T 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } } {} deci d 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 1} } } {}
giga G 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{9} } } {} centi c 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } } {}
mega M 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{6} } } {} milli m 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } } {}
kilo k 10 3 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{3} } } {} micro μ size 12{μ} {} 10 6 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 6} } } {}
hecto h 10 2 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{2} } } {} nano n 10 9 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - 9} } } {}
deka da 10 1 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{1} } } {} pico p 10 12 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "12"} } } {}
10 0 ( = 1 ) size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{0} } \( `=1` \) } {} femto f 10 15 size 12{"10" rSup { size 8{ - "15"} } } {}
The greek alphabet
Alpha Α size 12{Α} {} α size 12{α} {} Eta Η size 12{Η} {} η size 12{η} {} Nu Ν size 12{Ν} {} ν size 12{ν} {} Tau Τ size 12{Τ} {} τ size 12{τ} {}
Beta Β size 12{Β} {} β size 12{β} {} Theta Θ size 12{Θ} {} θ size 12{θ} {} Xi Ξ size 12{Ξ} {} ξ size 12{ξ} {} Upsilon Υ size 12{Υ} {} υ size 12{υ} {}
Gamma Γ size 12{Γ} {} γ size 12{γ} {} Iota Ι size 12{Ι} {} ι size 12{ι} {} Omicron Ο size 12{Ο} {} ο size 12{ο} {} Phi Φ size 12{Φ} {} ϕ size 12{ϕ} {}
Delta Δ size 12{Δ} {} δ size 12{δ} {} Kappa Κ size 12{Κ} {} κ size 12{κ} {} Pi Π size 12{Π} {} π size 12{π} {} Chi Χ size 12{Χ} {} χ size 12{χ} {}
Epsilon Ε size 12{Ε} {} ε size 12{ε} {} Lambda Λ size 12{Λ} {} λ size 12{λ} {} Rho Ρ size 12{Ρ} {} ρ size 12{ρ} {} Psi Ψ size 12{Ψ} {} ψ size 12{ψ} {}
Zeta Ζ size 12{Ζ} {} ζ size 12{ζ} {} Mu Μ size 12{Μ} {} μ size 12{μ} {} Sigma Σ size 12{Σ} {} σ size 12{σ} {} Omega Ω size 12{ %OMEGA } {} ω size 12{ω} {}
Si units
Entity Abbreviation Name
Fundamental units Length m meter
Mass kg kilogram
Time s second
Current A ampere
Supplementary unit Angle rad radian
Derived units Force N = kg m / s 2 size 12{N="kg" cdot {m} slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} newton
Energy J = kg m 2 / s 2 size 12{J="kg" cdot {m rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {s rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} joule
Power W = J / s size 12{W= {J} slash {s} } {} watt
Pressure Pa = N / m 2 size 12{"Pa"= {N} slash {m rSup { size 8{2} } } } {} pascal
Frequency Hz = 1 / s size 12{"Hz"= {1} slash {s} } {} hertz
Electronic potential V = J / C size 12{V= {J} slash {C} } {} volt
Capacitance F = C / V size 12{F= {C} slash {V} } {} farad
Charge C = s A size 12{C=s cdot A} {} coulomb
Resistance Ω = V / A size 12{ %OMEGA = {V} slash {A} } {} ohm
Magnetic field T = N / A m size 12{T= {N} slash { left (A cdot m right )} } {} tesla
Nuclear decay rate Bq = 1 / s size 12{"Bq"= {1} slash {s} } {} becquerel
Selected british units
Length 1 inch ( in . ) = 2 . 54 cm ( exactly ) size 12{1" inch " \( "in" "." \) =2 "." "54"" cm " \( "exactly" \) } {}
1 foot ( ft ) = 0 . 3048 m size 12{1" foot " \( "ft" \) =0 "." "3048"" m"} {}
1 mile ( mi ) = 1 . 609 km size 12{1" mile " \( "mi" \) =1 "." "609"" km"} {}
Force 1 pound ( lb ) = 4 . 448 N size 12{1" pound " \( "lb" \) =4 "." "448"" N"} {}
Energy 1 British thermal unit ( Btu ) = 1 . 055 × 10 3 J size 12{1" British thermal unit " \( "Btu" \) =1 "." "055" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " J"} {}
Power 1 horsepower ( hp ) = 746 W size 12{1" horsepower " \( "hp" \) ="746"" W"} {}
Pressure 1 lb / in 2 = 6 . 895 × 10 3 Pa size 12{1 {"lb"} slash {"in" rSup { size 8{2} } } =6 "." "895" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " Pa"} {}
Other units
Length 1 light year ( ly ) = 9 . 46 × 10 15 m size 12{1`" light"`" year"` \( "ly" \) ` =9 "." "46" times "10" rSup { size 8{"15"} } " m"} {}
1 astronomical unit ( au ) = 1 . 50 × 10 11 m size 12{1`" astronomical"`" unit"` \( "au" \) ` =1 "." "50" times "10" rSup { size 8{"11"} } " m"} {}
1 nautical mile = 1 . 852 km size 12{1`" nautical"`" mile"` =1 "." "852"`" km"} {}
1 angstrom ( Å ) = 10 10 m size 12{1`" angstrom"` \( Å \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "10"} } " m"} {}
Area 1 acre ( ac ) = 4 . 05 × 10 3 m 2 size 12{1`" acre"` \( "ac" \) ` =4 "." "05" times "10" rSup { size 8{3} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 square foot ( ft 2 ) = 9 . 29 × 10 2 m 2 size 12{1`"square"`"foot"` \( "ft" rSup { size 8{2} } \) ` =9 "." "29" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
1 barn ( b ) = 10 28 m 2 size 12{1`" barn"` \( b \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - "28"} } " m" rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume 1 liter ( L ) = 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" liter"` \( L \) ` ="10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
1 U.S. gallon ( gal ) = 3 . 785 × 10 3 m 3 size 12{1`" U" "." S "." `" gallon"` \( "gal" \) ` =3 "." "785" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 3} } " m" rSup { size 8{3} } } {}
Mass 1 solar mass = 1 . 99 × 10 30 kg size 12{1`" solar"`" mass"` =1 "." "99" times "10" rSup { size 8{"30"} } " kg"} {}
1 metric ton = 10 3 kg size 12{1`" metric"`" ton"` ="10" rSup { size 8{3} } " kg"} {}
1 atomic mass unit ( u ) = 1 . 6605 × 10 27 kg size 12{1`" atomic"`" mass"`" unit"`` \( u \) ` =1 "." "6605" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "27"} } " kg"} {}
Time 1 year ( y ) = 3 . 16 × 10 7 s size 12{1`" year"` \( y \) ` =3 "." "16" times "10" rSup { size 8{7} } " s"} {}
1 day ( d ) = 86 , 400 s size 12{1`" day"` \( d \) ` ="86","400"`" s"} {}
Speed 1 mile per hour ( mph ) = 1 . 609 km / h size 12{1`" mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "mph" \) `=1 "." "609"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
1 nautical mile per hour ( naut ) = 1 . 852 km / h size 12{1`" nautical"`"mile"`"per"`"hour"` \( "naut" \) `=1 "." "852"` {"km"} slash {h} } {}
Angle 1 degree ( ° ) = 1 . 745 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" degree"` \( ° \) ` =1 "." "745" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
1 minute of arc ( ' ) = 1 / 60 degree size 12{1`" minute"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { ' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"} `" degree"} {}
1 second of arc ( '' ) = 1 / 60 minute of arc size 12{1`" second"`"of"`"arc"` { { \( }} sup { '' } \) `= {1} slash {"60"`} " minute of arc"} {}
1 grad = 1 . 571 × 10 2 rad size 12{1`" grad"` =1 "." "571" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - 2} } " rad"} {}
Energy 1 kiloton TNT ( kT ) = 4 . 2 × 10 12 J size 12{1`" kiloton"`" TNT"` \( "kT" \) ` =4 "." 2 times "10" rSup { size 8{"12"} } " J"} {}
1 kilowatt hour ( kW h ) = 3 . 60 × 10 6 J size 12{1`" kilowatt"`" hour"` \( "kW" cdot h \) ` =3 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{6} } " J"} {}
1 food calorie ( kcal ) = 4186 J size 12{1`" food"`"calorie"` \( "kcal" \) `="4186"`" J"} {}
1 calorie ( cal ) = 4 . 186 J size 12{1`" calorie"` \( "cal" \) `=4 "." "186"`" J"} {}
1 electron volt ( eV ) = 1 . 60 × 10 19 J size 12{1`" electron"`" volt"` \( "eV" \) ` =1 "." "60" times "10" rSup { size 8{ - "19"} } " J"} {}
Pressure 1 atmosphere ( atm ) = 1 . 013 × 10 5 Pa size 12{1`" atmosphere"` \( "atm" \) ` =1 "." "013" times "10" rSup { size 8{5} } " Pa"} {}
1 millimeter of mercury ( mm Hg ) = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" millimeter"`"of"`"mercury"` \( "mm"`"Hg" \) `="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
1 torricelli ( torr ) = 1 mm Hg = 133 . 3 Pa size 12{1`" torricelli"` \( "torr" \) `=1`" mm"``"Hg "="133" "." 3`" Pa"} {}
Nuclear decay rate 1 curie ( Ci ) = 3 . 70 × 10 10 Bq size 12{1`" curie"` \( "Ci" \) ` =3 "." "70" times "10" rSup { size 8{"10"} } " Bq"} {}
Useful formulae
Circumference of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} C = 2 πr = πd size 12{C=2πr=πd} {}
Area of a circle with radius r size 12{r} {} or diameter d size 12{d} {} A = πr 2 = πd 2 / 4 size 12{A=πr rSup { size 8{2} } = {πd rSup { size 8{2} } } slash {4} } {}
Area of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} A = 4 πr 2 size 12{A=4πr rSup { size 8{2} } } {}
Volume of a sphere with radius r size 12{r} {} V = 4 / 3 πr 3 size 12{V= left ( {4} slash {3} right ) left (πr rSup { size 8{3} } right )} {}

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, General physics ii phy2202ca. OpenStax CNX. Jul 05, 2013 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11538/1.2
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